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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-48

Online since Monday, March 29, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Estimation of plasma levels of fibrinogen in patients with periodontitis: An intervention study Highly accessed article p. 1
Sapna Pritesh Ganna, Rajani Kalla, Deep Shailesh Shah, Charchil Narendrakumar Patel, Mahesh Giradharlal Chavda, Priteshkumar Sureshchand Ganna
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_44_20  
Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on plasma levels of fibrinogen in patients with chronic periodontitis and its association. Materials and Methods: Twenty otherwise healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis were recruited for this intervention study. Both clinical parameters and blood were collected at baseline and one month, three months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy (scaling, root planning, and oral hygiene instructions). Periodontal examination included PD, CAL, PI, GI, and blood; these were analyzed to determine plasma fibrinogen. The effect of treatment was assessed by paired t-test; correlation between blood and clinical parameters was assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Results: There was a significant reduction in PD, CAL, PI, and GI at one month and three months after periodontal therapy (P < 0.001); plasma fibrinogen levels significantly decreased at one month and three months after treatment (P < 0.001). Also, a significant correlation was seen between clinical parameters and fibrinogen levels at different intervals of time. Conclusion: In patients with chronic periodontitis, nonsurgical periodontal therapy significantly reduced fibrinogen levels after one month and three months and it may, thus, decrease their risk of coronary heart disease.
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Evaluation of friction of stainless steel wires after clinical use Highly accessed article p. 5
Sapna Pritesh Ganna, Charchil Narendrakumar Patel, Deep Shailesh Shah, Rajani Kalla, Priteshkumar Sureshchand Ganna, Nisarg Jesangbhai Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_45_20  
Aims: To investigate the changes that occur in stainless steel (SS) orthodontic arch wires before and just after clinical use for eight weeks. To evaluate changes in the wire surface roughness, and the friction produced during sliding. Materials and Methods: Eight candidates were selected for this study. The 0.022″ × 0.028″ MBT first premolar brackets were bonded on the first premolar, second premolar, and first molar of the maxillary arch on both the sides, and straight, passive 0.019″ × 0.025″ SS wire was ligated with elastic modules. After eight weeks, the wires were removed and friction and roughness were evaluated. Results: Results showed a significant increase in the surface roughness from 0.644 Ra to 2.018 Ra after clinical use; friction of the wire too increased from 0.7N to 2.52N after clinical use. P values for both were <0.0001, which showed that the changes were very highly significant. Conclusion: The results concluded that the increase in the friction and roughness values would affect the sliding of the wire and increase the treatment duration.
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Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of herbal v/s synthetic irrigating solutions: An in vitro study p. 8
Himani Gandhi, Darshana Snehal Dave, Nikita Shah, Amitkumar Pathak, Karishnee Rakesh Patel, Preety Martin
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_2_21  
The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Despite adequate treatment, failure occurs due to the presence of pathogenic residual bacteria in sites within the canal. In dentistry, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments used and their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, there is a quest for novel bioactive materials/ herbal alternatives that are popular, increased shelf life, and low toxicity. This study is designed to explore the antimicrobial efficacy of pomegranate, garlic, and aloe vera extracts as a root canal irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis. Out of the three medicaments used in this study to test their antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis in comparison to 0.2% Chlorhexidine, it was found that none of the medicaments had a mean zone of inhibition more than 0.2% Chlorhexidine.
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Self-reported oral health-related quality of life among female adolescent students in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia p. 11
Fahad A Al Shammery
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_8_21  
Background: The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale assesses impacts on individuals’ daily lives. Aim: To examine the self-reported Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of female adolescent students based on the child version of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) index in Riyadh City of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female Saudi adolescent school students, 13–16 years old, from the data obtained from the school educational projects previously undertaken by the interns of the college of dentistry. The study participants were female students attending public intermediate schools in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. The Arabic version of the questionnaire, consisting of items assessing socio-demographic characteristics, the OIDP inventory was distributed to students during community projects. The data obtained from this project was collected and statistical analysis was performed. Results: The self-reported data of 402 female students were analyzed. The participants’ ages ranged from 13 years to 16 years, with a mean age of 14.37. The mean of total OIDP simple count was 4.1±3, whereas the mean of total OIDP Additive score was found to be 5.6±4.7. The OIDP simple count scores among students in different grades and the mother’s education level showed statistical significance. A significantly positive correlation was observed with OIDP simple count score and eating, speaking, cleaning teeth, sleeping/ relaxing, showing teeth, and emotions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Data obtained from the community projects indicated that female intermediate school children aged 13–16 years perceived that malocclusion affected all daily performance measured on the OIDP scale.
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Perception of online classes during COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study among the students of a rural tertiary care center and dental college in Kerala, India p. 14
Prasanth Viswambharan, AR Adhershitha, Sheela Virginia Rodrigues
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_47_20  
Purpose: To study the perception of online classes among the students of Government Dental College, Alappuzha, a rural tertiary care center and dental education institute in the state of Kerala, India, during COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire comprised of four domains: the first domain included socio-demographic details, the second domain was used to explore the details of online classes that happened during the pandemic, third domain was on the students’ perception of online classes and the fourth domain was on students’ likes and dislikes, suggestions and practices. Results: Media quality in various platforms and interaction potential with teachers were assessed. Even though understanding of the academic content was found good, perception of clinical/pre-clinical learning was poor. Preferred duration of each session was 45 min to 1 h. Majority of students preferred regular classes and few suggested a blended mode beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Sharing of reading materials in the form of multimedia slides or any other detailed reading format or recordings and a provision to store them for further reference too was preferred. Conclusions: Acceptable levels of e-learning experience were revealed by the study participants. In the Indian context, as a developing country, good network and internet coverage has to be ensured for students for the successful implementation of online education. E-learning can be adopted as an adjunct to traditional classroom learning after the prevailing pandemic.
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Impact of Covid-19 lockdown measures on the burden of maxillofacial trauma cases: A record-based comparative study p. 18
P T Ikram Bin Ismail, Ajith Samson, CS Soumithran, KR David Tharakan, O Fasalulla, Namitha S Prem
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_1_21  
Background: The Covid-19 pandemic created a complex impact on the load of maxillofacial trauma cases worldwide. The exact effects of lockdown measures on the burden of maxillofacial trauma cases in India remain unknown. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Covid-19 lockdown measures on the burden of maxillofacial trauma cases reporting to the emergency department of Government Medical College, Kozhikode. Materials and Methods: A record-based comparative study was performed to assess the maxillofacial trauma cases among patients reported to the emergency department of Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala from 25 March 2020 to 31 May 2020 (Lockdown group/Study group). This was compared with two control groups (pre-lockdown groups). Results: A total of 170 (10.4%) maxillofacial trauma cases were presented in the lockdown period, 723 (44.1%) cases during the pre-lockdown period, and 745 (45.5%) cases in the previous year (2019 period). There was a reduction of 35.1% and 33.7% in the number of maxillofacial trauma cases during lockdown period when compared with the respective counterparts. Conclusion: This study result will serve as a record for planning and implementing alternate protocols, identifying areas for improvement as well as re-distributing resources and manpower in times of future epidemics/pandemics.
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Analysis of fingertip patterns in patients with oral leukoplakia: a dermatoglyphic study p. 23
Ketan Prajapati, Jyoti Chawda, Jarvil Thakkar, Akilahmed Kureshi, Nikhil Patel, Nimisha Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_7_21  
Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is focused on studying the fine-patterned dermal ridges on volar surfaces of soles, palms, and ridges. It has drawn attention in the field of dentistry. The diagnosis of many diseases that are genetically or nongenetically determined can now be aided by dermatoglyphic analysis, as these patterns have polygenic inheritance. Millions of people consume tobacco, but all of them do not suffer from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) of the oral cavity. It seems likely that a genetic predisposition could be an underlying mechanism. Aim: The present study aims at determining the relationship between dermatoglyphics and oral leukoplakia (OL). Materials and Methods: Fingertip prints were studied on 30 subjects who were divided into three groups: Group 1 consisted of 10 patients with leukoplakia; Group 2 had 10 patients with habit without lesion; and Group 3 had 10 patients without any habit and any lesion as control. Fingertip prints were taken by the ink method. Results: It was observed that the loops pattern was predominant in patients with OL and in patients with habit but without lesion.
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Awareness, perception, and attitude of dental practitioners toward COVID-19 and their role in its prevention in central Madhya Pradesh: A questionnaire study p. 26
Sagar Gupta, Richa Agrawal, Sonali Dhawan Grover, Neeharika Soorgani, Shyam Sundar Reddy, Shivarama Krishna Aila
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_12_21  
Introduction: In 2019, an unknown virus was reported in the city of Wuhan, China and later it was declared as a global pandemic, now known as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). The suggested route of this virus transmission is through aerosols, touching contaminated surfaces, or coming in contact with an infected person. Dentists are first-line diagnosticians for oral diseases and are in close contact with patients and, hence, they are at a higher risk of infection. Aim: To assess the level of awareness, perception, and attitude of dentists regarding preventive guidelines and change in their clinical work due to COVID-19. Materials and Methods: In this study, 831 (597 females and 234 males) participants were included. This multiple-choice questionnaire study was conducted among dental professionals of Central India working in private clinics, hospitals, and health centers. An online questionnaire was made available using a Google Form, and a link was circulated among dentists in October 2020. Questions asked in the survey were regarding the participants’ characteristics, their awareness about the incubation period, symptoms of the disease, mode of transmission, impact of COVID-19 on clinical practice, measures taken by them for the prevention of coronavirus disease transmission, perception of dentists regarding rapid testing, and change in their attitude toward treating patients in the midst of this pandemic. Statistical analysis was done using the IBM SPSS version 22.0 (IBM Corporation, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. N.Y., USA). Chi-square test was applied to find differences in the measures of prevention between variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study consisted of a total of 831 (597 females and 234 males) dentists. The majority of dentists (92.4%) were working in the private sector; 63.9% of dentists were not aware of the correct incubation period. The majority of dentists knew about the mode of transmission and symptoms of COVID. Overall, 96.4% of dentists followed the routine of regularly cleaning and disinfecting the surfaces in contact with patients and experienced that this significantly helped in decreasing the disease transmission. Conclusions: Dentists were well informed of COVID-19 symptoms, its mode of transmission and they were prepared to do the changes needed to be done during the pandemic.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Implant prosthetics planning in anterior maxillary defects in deep bite cases p. 30
Desh Deepak, Dipayan Bhattacharya, Pankaj Gandhi, Harshitha Patil, Khushbu Mishra, Kishor Kumar
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_6_21  
Modern implant dentistry has been shown to yield excellent, well-documented, long-term results, with 10-year success and survival rates above 95%. Dentists now have the choice of using an array of preoperative planning tools, both conventional and computer-aided, to help them assess potential rehabilitative treatment solutions for their patients with implant prosthetics planning in anterior maxillary defects in deep bite cases.
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Functional and quality-of-life outcomes following maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation: A review of the current literature p. 32
Hanan N Al-Otaibi
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_10_21  
Head and neck cancer patients are usually treated with surgical resection of the cancerous tissue, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. This review summarizes the existing literature on head and neck cancer patients’ functional and quality-of-life outcomes following maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. Prosthetic rehabilitation could be required as part of their treatment, or these patients may receive it later. Furthermore, the patients who have undergone prosthetic rehabilitation have demonstrated an improved quality of life, especially concerning the functional outcomes.
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Effect of chronic periodontitis on serum ferritin levels before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy: A review p. 40
Nikesh Thounaojam, Rahul Jha, Bhagy Narayan Chaudhary, Vikas Chandra Pankaj, Subhash Chandra Pankaj, Rajkumari Geeta
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_11_21  
Various biomarkers in serum/plasma have been evaluated in patients with periodontitis. Ferritin has emerged as a potential diagnostic marker in the assessment of oral and systemic diseases, particularly periodontal diseases. Ferritin concentrations in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) have not been evaluated, for changes in relation to the effectiveness of periodontal therapy. So the aim of this review is to identify the causal relationship, if any between CP and serum ferritin levels. It was found that serum ferritin level can be used as a biomarker in evaluating the effectiveness of periodontal therapy in CP patients. More interventional studies with higher sample size are required to ascertain the role of serum ferritin levels in evaluating the periodontal health status.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Oral lichenoid reaction to dental amalgam and its association with desquamative gingivitis “a diagnostic conundrum”: A case report p. 42
Aishwarya Pande, Poonam Rai, Devanand Shetty, Suyog Dharmadhikari
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_4_21  
Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) are chronic inflammatory lesions of the oral cavity, and they can hardly be distinguished from oral lichen planus (OLP). Various terms have been used in the literature, including lichenoid contact lesions, lichenoid contact stomatitis, and oral lichenoid reactions. The concept of contact allergy to dental restorative materials in OLLs has been widely recognized but somewhat controversial. The most common causative allergen is mercury in dental amalgam, with a few reported cases from other materials. These lesions are most often seen in direct topographic relation to the causative agent. The possible correlation between the presence of desquamative gingivitis (DG) associated with autoimmune diseases and the worsening of periodontal parameters has been discussed in the literature, since both conditions can share immuno-inflammatory mechanisms in their pathogenesis. The DG may indirectly worsen the accumulation of plaque in the affected sites, since pain and bleeding may inhibit the patient’s oral hygiene. The aim of this report is to present a clinical case of OLLs associated with amalgam restoration and its association with DG for a three-month follow-up period.
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Cemento-ossifying fibroma: A diagnostic dilemma p. 46
Roopan Prakash, S Mohamed Shahid, Hima Raj, KS Anil
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_3_21  
Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a controversial term because of its terminology and its diagnosis. The COF is odontogenic in origin, although it is a central neoplasm of the bone and involves the periodontium. Most COFs exhibit slow and expansile growth in the jaws and are benign in origin. The lesion is encapsulated with mixed radiodensities. The COF is characterized by the replacement of normal bone by fibrous tissue and varying amounts of osteoid and cementum-like material. The definitive diagnosis of such lesions requires clinical, radiological, and histopathological observations. The treatment of choice is surgical resection, and recurrence is uncommon. We report a case of COF in the left mandibular premolar region and discuss how to confirm the diagnosis.
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