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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 71-111

Online since Tuesday, December 29, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Assessment of microsphere-controlled drug delivery for local control of tooth movement p. 71
Erukala Srikanth, Eslavath Seena Naik, Malledi Narasimha Lakshmi, Devatha Ashok Babu, Rahul Goud Padala, Addu Aravind Kumar
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_39_20  
Background: Orthodontics is a special discipline dedicated to the investigation and practice of moving teeth through the bone. This study was conducted to assess new methods to locally enhance orthodontic anchorage. Materials and Methods: A single injection of 1 mg/kg nonencapsulated or microsphere encapsulated osteoprotegerin (OPG) was delivered into the palatal mucosa mesial to the first maxillary molar 1 day prior to tooth movement. A positive control group received injections of 5 mg/kg nonencapsulated OPG every 3 days during tooth movement. After 28 days of tooth movement, hemi-maxillae and femurs were dissected. Molar mesial and incisor distal tooth movement was measured using stone casts that were scanned and magnified. Results: Maximum movement was obtained with an empty microsphere single injection as compared to 1 mg/kg nonencapsulated OPG, 1 mg/kg encapsulated OPG, and 5 mg/kg nonencapsulated OPG. Maximum movement 2.6 mm was obtained with an empty microsphere single injection as compared to 1 mg/kg nonencapsulated OPG (2.4 mm), 1 mg/kg encapsulated OPG (2.5 mm), and 5 mg/kg nonencapsulated OPG (1.2 mm). A significant difference was found in bone mineral content, bone mineral density, tissue mineral content, and tissue mineral density with encapsulated and encapsulated OPG and microspheres (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Authors found that microsphere encapsulation of OPG allows for controlled drug release and enhances site-specific orthodontic anchorage without systemic side effects.
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Comparison of marginal accuracy and internal fit of cast nickel chromium and metal laser-sintered crowns: An in vitro study p. 74
Priyanka Konin, Arvind Moldi, Nagesh Ingleshwar, Shalini Nawabadkar, Rajasekhara Subhashini, Mohamed Ghalib Ruqshan Anjum
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_40_20  
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the marginal accuracy and internal fit of crowns fabricated by direct metal laser sintering, induction casting, and centrifugal casting. Materials and Methods: An acrylic resin analog of the right maxillary first molar was prepared with a total convergence angle of 6° and an occlusal reduction of 1.5 mm and 0.8 mm shoulder finish line. Thirty impressions of the analog tooth were obtained from the definitive die, n = 10 for each group. Wax patterns were fabricated and casting was done using an induction casting machine and centrifugal gas torch method, and for the direct metal laser-sintering group the dies were scanned and crown fabricated using EOS sintering machine. The marginal and internal gaps were estimated by measuring the cement thickness using a stereomicroscope. The mean value was determined and P values were obtained using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Student’s t test was used to determine the differences between the three groups. Results: The mean marginal and internal gaps were 59.82 ± 5.21 μm and118.69 ± 20.23 μm in the direct metal laser-sintering group, 116.13 ± 7.88 μm and 136.94 ± 13.50 μm in induction casting group, and 116.87 ± 7.46 μm and 133.77 ± 10.63 μm in centrifugal casting group, respectively. Conclusion: Under the limitation of this in vitro study, the marginal and internal gaps of DMLS group are better than centrifugal and induction casting groups.
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Prevalence of malocclusion and gingival diseases in tribal population p. 78
Ujjwal Priyadarsi, Mohammad Shahbaz Alam, Abid Hussain, Farrukh Azam, Priyanka Kumari, Rahul Anand
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_42_20  
Background: Jharkhand is home to many tribes, which have an interesting and varied history of origins, customs, and social practices. Oral health care in tribal areas is limited due to shortage of dental manpower, financial constraints, and the lack of perceived need for dental care among tribal masses. The main objective of this study was to find prevalence of malocclusion and gingival diseases in tribal population in Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was carried out among 1000 tribal children aged 5–15 years among 10 tribes of Jharkhand residing in East Singhbhum and West Singhbhum districts. Permissions and consent were obtained from local administrative authorities, ethical committee, and parents, respectively. A structured proforma was used to record demographic data. Examination for malocclusion and gingival diseases was also carried out. Descriptive tables and analytical tests such as ANOVA, post hoc, and chi-square test were employed. Results: The mean age was 10.75 (±2.43) years. The tribal children had minor malocclusion with no or slight treatment need. Categorization of orthodontic treatment need according to malocclusion severity is particularly important for the planning of corresponding public policies. Gingivitis was found among majority of children. Conclusion: The isolation of the villages and lack of transportation options impose limitations on the availability of health professionals to provide dental services.
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Evaluation of orthodontic retention protocol among general dentist: A cross-sectional study p. 80
Bhuvaneswari Mani, Abhishek Janardhanam, Haritha Doraiswamy, Selvakumar Ramar, Anupama S Prakash, S Srinidhi
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_43_20  
Aim: The current survey was conducted to explore the retention protocol, complication regarding retainers, and long-term follow-up regarding orthodontic retention among the general dentist in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Method: This was a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire survey conducted among general dentists in Tamil Nadu. The pilot study was conducted to estimate the sample size and the final sample size arrived was 500 participants. The predesigned and validated, self-administered, structured 10 questions related to retention protocol, complication regarding retainers, and long-term follow-up regarding orthodontic retention. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS (V 22.0) The frequency distribution was computed. Result: The current survey revealed that 500 (100%) respondents had awareness about the retention protocol after orthodontic treatment. Out of all the respondents 33 (6.6%) chose for a removable retainer, 367 (73.4%) chose a fixed retainer,84 (16.8%) opted for an invisible retainer and the remaining practitioner chose a combination of removable and fixed retainer. Nearly 452 (90.4%) general practitioners advised their patients to contact their orthodontist in case of a broken retainer and the remaining 48(9.6%) general practitioners can make retainers by themselves. Out of all the respondents, nearly 54.6% general dentists gradually taking over the case during monitoring and follow-up phase. Conclusion: In conclusion, the current study showed that a vast majority of the dentists were aware of the retention protocol and they are confident enough to deal emergency situation like broken retainers and most of the dentist prefer fixed retainer over other types of retainer.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Anterior and posterior crowns in primary dentition: A contemporary review p. 83
Dempsy Chengappa MM, Akshai Kannan, Dhruv Sharma
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_35_20  
One of the most common problems faced by clinicians in pediatric dentistry is to provide restorations in primary and young permanent teeth which are aesthetically acceptable, durable and cost effective. A wide range of crowns are available for this purpose and the selection of the most appropriate crown will help achieve better final outcomes of treatment. The vary widely from being the directly bondable to the tooth surface to crowns which are luted onto the tooth surface. They may also vary in composition from metal crowns with or without facings to resin, polycarbonate, and ceramic crowns. This review attempts to assimilate and bring out the varied array of pediatric crowns available in the published data for utilization by the pedodontist as per the needs of the patient. The knowledge of the available resources and the various advantages, disadvantages and properties of the same will go a long way in enhancing the clinician’s ability to make the most appropriate choice for the patient.
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Transmigration of mandibular cuspids: Review of literature p. 88
M Nazargi Mahabob
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_38_20  
Aim: The aim of this review was to summarize currently available data related to the prevalence and etiology of transmigrant mandibular canines and the different treatment options. Materials and Methods: A computer-based search of studies published from January 2016 to April 2020 was conducted. The studies were selected from various electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholar, Epub, Embase, and Cochrane based on their title, study, design, keywords, Cochrane methodology, supplemented by a grey literature search and manually searched the references lists of the selected articles. Results: A total of 180 citations were searched initially and after proper screening, 19 relevant articles were included. According to the findings from our review, the incidence of canine impaction in the mandible ranges from 0.92% to 5.1%, whereas that of canine transmigration ranges from 0.1% to 0.31%. The literature search also shows that transmigration of canine almost exclusive in the mandible. Multiple factors have been attributed to the etiology of this condition. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) helps in giving clear details about their location, relation with adjacent structures, and pathology related to them. Conclusion: Early identification, proper treatment plan, and timely intervention needed to preserve the esthetic appearance and functional stability.
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An update on the utilization of high-density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE) membranes for guided bone regeneration p. 91
Reem Al-Kattan
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_51_20  
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedure has produced acceptable results while utilizing various barrier membranes. Among the membranes used, expanded PTFE (e-PTFE) was the first material to demonstrate successful outcomes and it became the gold standard for GBR. However, early bacterial infection with membrane exposure affecting bone regeneration was the main drawback of e-PTFE. On the contrary, high density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PFTE) ensures a good bone regeneration process in spite of membrane exposure in the oral cavity, and it also presents with a lower risk of early infection after surgical procedures. The purpose of this review is to provide an amendment to the existing knowledge about the GBR with special emphasis on the d-PTFE barrier membrane used for GBR. The relevant literature for this review was identified through a PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library database search. Eleven articles that evaluated the use of d-PTFE as a barrier membrane for GBR were identified: two experimental studies and nine clinical studies. Considering the potential benefit they offer, d-PTFE is a favorable candidate for GBR. However, a careful surgical approach and thorough knowledge of the materials and management of complications significantly contribute to the success of GBR while utilizing d-PTFE.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Hemangiomas of the oral and maxillofacial region: A series of five cases with literature review p. 97
Sooraj Soman, T Ajay Das, Leslie Sara Mathew Kalathil, Sachin Aslam, Tom Thomas, Vijayakumar Depesh
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_46_20  
Most of the vascular tumors in the maxillofacial region are hemangiomas. Hemangiomas are basically benign lesions of a vascular origin. This article describes a series of five cases on hemangioma recorded on the lip, buccal mucosa, and zygoma. Here, we present four variants of hemangioma, namely cavernous hemangioma, capillary hemangioma, lobular capillary hemangioma, and intraosseous hemangioma, which were reported to our Maxillofacial Unit.
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Transmigration of cuspids: Report of three rare cases p. 103
Nazargi Mahabob Mahabob Basha
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_30_20  
The pre-eruptive and intraosseous migration of teeth across the midline is called as transmigration. This rare phenomenon is common in the mandible compared to the maxilla. The occurrence of bilateral transmigration of mandibular canine is even rarer than unilateral transmigration. In these three cases, two of them were unilateral transmigration and the third was bilateral transmigration. In unilateral transmigration cases, one among them showed compound odontome-induced transmigration of canine and displaced premolar toward the third molar of the same side and another with unilateral transmigration of canine just crossing the midline. The case had bilaterally transmigrated canines. The occurrence of bilateral transmigration of the mandibular canine is very rare than the unilateral transmigration. Many factors had been suggested as causative agents for transmigration of mandibular canines, but there is no clear, established etiology for this phenomenon. Mupparapu proposed classifications for unilateral and bilateral transmigration of mandibular canines after reviewing literature.
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Odontogenic myxoma of posterior maxilla: A case report with mini literature review p. 106
Sooraj Soman, Ajay Das Thulasi Das, Abhilash Mathews Thomas, Tom Thomas
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_36_20  
Odontogenic myxoma is an uncommon, benign, locally invasive neoplasm with a high chance of recurrence. It is exclusively present in tooth-bearing areas of the jaws. Odontogenic myxoma commonly occurs in age groups ranging from 20 to 40 years with a female predilection, and the common site of occurrence is the posterior mandible. The purpose of this case report was to describe the unusual rare presentation of odontogenic myxoma of the posterior maxilla in a 16-year-old male patient, which was managed by surgical excision, peripheral ostectomy, and chemical cauterization
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Endodontic management of permanent mandibular second molar with Vertucci type II canal configuration: A rare case report p. 109
Subhashini Rajasekhara, Shalini Nawabadkar, Shruthi A Manjunath, Navaneeth Yerragudi
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_49_20  
The permanent mandibular second molars usually have two roots (mesial and distal), one mesial with two root canals (Mesiobuccal and Distobuccal) and another distal root, with one (distal)/two canals (Distobuccal and Distolingual). Multirooted posterior teeth more commonly show variations in root canal morphology. The present case report describes diagnosis and endodontic management of permanent mandibular left second molar having single root with Vertucci type II canal configuration.
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