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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-13

Self-reported oral health-related quality of life among female adolescent students in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia


Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission08-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance22-Feb-2021
Date of Web Publication08-Mar-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Fahad A Al Shammery
Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Namuthajiya Campus, P. O. Box: 84891, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INJO.INJO_8_21

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  Abstract 

Background: The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale assesses impacts on individuals’ daily lives. Aim: To examine the self-reported Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of female adolescent students based on the child version of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) index in Riyadh City of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female Saudi adolescent school students, 13–16 years old, from the data obtained from the school educational projects previously undertaken by the interns of the college of dentistry. The study participants were female students attending public intermediate schools in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. The Arabic version of the questionnaire, consisting of items assessing socio-demographic characteristics, the OIDP inventory was distributed to students during community projects. The data obtained from this project was collected and statistical analysis was performed. Results: The self-reported data of 402 female students were analyzed. The participants’ ages ranged from 13 years to 16 years, with a mean age of 14.37. The mean of total OIDP simple count was 4.1±3, whereas the mean of total OIDP Additive score was found to be 5.6±4.7. The OIDP simple count scores among students in different grades and the mother’s education level showed statistical significance. A significantly positive correlation was observed with OIDP simple count score and eating, speaking, cleaning teeth, sleeping/ relaxing, showing teeth, and emotions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Data obtained from the community projects indicated that female intermediate school children aged 13–16 years perceived that malocclusion affected all daily performance measured on the OIDP scale.

Keywords: Adolescent, female, OHRQoL, OIDP, self-report, students


How to cite this article:
Al Shammery FA. Self-reported oral health-related quality of life among female adolescent students in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Int J Oral Care Res 2021;9:11-3

How to cite this URL:
Al Shammery FA. Self-reported oral health-related quality of life among female adolescent students in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Int J Oral Care Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Apr 13];9:11-3. Available from: https://www.ijocr.org/text.asp?2021/9/1/11/310957




  Introduction Top


Oral health remains a significant public health issue due to its prevalence, and there is a clear signal that oral health problems have social, economic, and psychological implications, which indicates that they affect the quality of life. Lately, there is a significant focus on recognizing oral health as an aspect of quality of life.[1],[2],[3],[4] The OIDP scale assesses the impacts on individuals’ daily lives. The Child-OIDP inventory was derived from the OIDP; it was developed and tested in children from several countries. Many studies have found that Child-OIDP is a reliable and valid instrument for children affected with various oro-facial conditions.[5],[6],[7] The self-reported physical, social, and psychological effects of the oral conditions are essential to obtain a more in-depth insight into adolescents’ OHRQoL. Until now, no studies have measured the OHRQoL of female Saudi adolescents with the Child-OIDP scale. Hence, this study aimed at examining the self-reported OHRQoL of female adolescent students based on the Child-OIDP index in Riyadh City of Saudi Arabia.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female Saudi adolescent school students, 13–16 years old, from the data obtained from the school educational projects previously undertaken by the interns of the college of dentistry. The study participants were female students attending public intermediate schools in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia.

The study proposal was registered (FRP/2020/283/315/309) in Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with a final sample size of 402. The questionnaire that was translated from English to the Arabic language was utilized to collect the data. Oral health professionals and bilingual experts reviewed the survey instrument. The questionnaire consisted of items assessing sociodemographic characteristics, the OIDP inventory.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 19. Descriptive statistics of frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation were calculated. A mean±SD of OIDP scores were calculated and compared across different demographic variables by ANOVA tests. A Pearson’s correlation test was also applied to the data. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05.


  Results Top


In this study, 402 female students’ data that were obtained from the community projects were analyzed. In the present study, more than half of the study participants complained of toothache (59.20%) and problems with spaces in teeth (55.2%). Less than half of the subjects had problems with the color of their teeth (47.30%), teeth sensitivity (40.30%) followed by other oral problems.

A descriptive statistic of eight oral impacts on daily performance items and the OIDP additive and simple count scores were calculated. The mean of total OIDP simple count was 4.1±3, whereas the mean of total OIDP Additive score was found to be 5.6±4.7 [Table 1].
Table 1: Percentage distribution (percentages of students affected less than once a month or more) and mean frequency scores (SD) for the eight OIDP items and the OIDP Additive and OIDP simple count score

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A significantly positive correlation was observed between OIDP simple count score and eating, speaking, cleaning teeth, sleeping/ relaxing, showing teeth, and emotions (P < 0.05). Very few students expressed that they were very satisfied with teeth and mouth, the appearance of teeth, position of teeth, and color of their teeth [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Response to satisfaction and dissatisfaction with teeth and mouth

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  Discussion Top


Cross-cultural adaptation of socio-dental indicators requires rigorous translation and validation to make the adopted instrument culturally relevant for the local population. The participants of the present study were familiar with Arabic as a mother tongue. Thus, a rigorous translation and back-translation were deemed necessary. This study’s participants attended public intermediate schools, conveniently selected from the population of intermediate schools in Riyadh. Moreover, only female intermediate school children were considered for the study due to the societal norms prohibiting females from entering male campuses. Therefore, this study focused on schoolgoing female adolescents only aged between 13 and 16 years. A total of 52.3% of the participants reported experiencing an oral impact that affected their daily life in the past six months. This finding was lower than that reported among adolescents in Uganda.[7] The eight impact prevalence rates ranging from 44.3% to 63.7% indicate that the OIDP impacts are of a relatively high severity in this study population. This is consistent with the results reported in previous OIDP surveys.[7],[8],[9],[10] Difficulties with eating and enjoying food and with cleaning teeth were the impacts most frequently reported. The total impact prevalence rate was comparable with but slightly higher than that of 51%, observed in the Tanzanian study, using a similar methodology and the English version of the questionnaire.[8] It was below those of about 70% observed in western populations with high dental disease levels and in a low-oral disease population.[8],[9],[10] Moreover, the single OIDP prevalence rates tended to be larger in Ugandan students than their Tanzanian counterparts. Certain limitations can be identified in this study; it was a cross-sectional study involving female intermediate students aged 13 years to 16 years. The instrument used for the data collection utilized the Arabic language, which needed validation. Although the clinical examination was carried out to collect the prevalence of different types of malocclusion and its severity, it was not reported. Instead, self-perception of malocclusion and its impact on daily living was elicited by using the OIDP instrument.


  Conclusion Top


Data obtained from the community projects indicated that female intermediate school children aged 13–16 years perceived that malocclusion affected all daily performance measured on the OIDP scale. Students in different grades and mother’s educational levels affected the OIDP score significantly. Positive correlations were observed between the OIDP score and activities of daily performance.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sheiham A Oral health, general health and quality of life. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83:644.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Kandelman D, Petersen PE, Ueda H Oral health, general health, and quality of life in older people. Spec Care Dentist 2008;28:224-36.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Gift HC, Atchison KA Oral health, health, and health-related quality of life. Med Care 1995;33:NS57-77.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Watt RG Strategies and approaches in oral disease prevention and health promotion. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83:711-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Jokovic A, Locker D, Stephens M, Kenny D, Tompson B, Guyatt G Validity and reliability of a questionnaire for measuring child oral-health-related quality of life. J Dent Res 2002;81:459-63.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jokovic A, Locker D, Stephens M, Kenny D, Tompson B, Guyatt G Measuring parental perceptions of child oral health-related quality of life. J Public Health Dent 2003;63:67-72.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Astrøm AN, Okullo I Validity and reliability of the oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP) frequency scale: A cross-sectional study of adolescents in uganda. BMC Oral Health 2003;3:5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Masalu JR, Astrøm AN Applicability of an abbreviated version of the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) scale for use among tanzanian students. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;31:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Slade GD Measuring oral health and quality of life. Chap Hill 1997;3:385.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Atchison KA, Der-Martirosian C, Gift HC Components of self-reported oral health and general health in racial and ethnic groups. J Public Health Dent 1998;58:301-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


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