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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 78-79

Prevalence of malocclusion and gingival diseases in tribal population


1 Department of Dentistry, Patliputra Medical College & Hospital (PMCH), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India
2 Department of Periodontology & Oral Implantology, Awadh Dental College & Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India
3 Department of Orthodontics, Mithila Minority Dental College & Hospital, Darbhanga, Bihar, India
4 Department of Orthodontics, Brahmanad Narayana Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India
5 Department of Dentistry, PHC Desari, Vaishali, Bihar, India

Date of Submission23-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance03-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication27-Nov-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ujjwal Priyadarsi
Department of Dentistry, Patliputra Medical College & Hospital (PMCH), Dhanbad 826005, Jharkhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INJO.INJO_42_20

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  Abstract 

Background: Jharkhand is home to many tribes, which have an interesting and varied history of origins, customs, and social practices. Oral health care in tribal areas is limited due to shortage of dental manpower, financial constraints, and the lack of perceived need for dental care among tribal masses. The main objective of this study was to find prevalence of malocclusion and gingival diseases in tribal population in Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was carried out among 1000 tribal children aged 5–15 years among 10 tribes of Jharkhand residing in East Singhbhum and West Singhbhum districts. Permissions and consent were obtained from local administrative authorities, ethical committee, and parents, respectively. A structured proforma was used to record demographic data. Examination for malocclusion and gingival diseases was also carried out. Descriptive tables and analytical tests such as ANOVA, post hoc, and chi-square test were employed. Results: The mean age was 10.75 (±2.43) years. The tribal children had minor malocclusion with no or slight treatment need. Categorization of orthodontic treatment need according to malocclusion severity is particularly important for the planning of corresponding public policies. Gingivitis was found among majority of children. Conclusion: The isolation of the villages and lack of transportation options impose limitations on the availability of health professionals to provide dental services.

Keywords: Dental caries, gingivitis, orthodontic needs, tribal children


How to cite this article:
Priyadarsi U, Alam MS, Hussain A, Azam F, Kumari P, Anand R. Prevalence of malocclusion and gingival diseases in tribal population. Int J Oral Care Res 2020;8:78-9

How to cite this URL:
Priyadarsi U, Alam MS, Hussain A, Azam F, Kumari P, Anand R. Prevalence of malocclusion and gingival diseases in tribal population. Int J Oral Care Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 24];8:78-9. Available from: https://www.ijocr.org/text.asp?2020/8/4/78/301704




  Introduction Top


A tribe is defined as a collection of families bearing a common name, speaking a common dialect, observing certain taboos regarding marriage, occupying or professing to a common territory, and is not usually endogamous, although originally it might have been so.[1] One of the largest tribal population resides in Jharkhand.[1],[2],[3] Due to their remote and isolated living, the tribal groups are difficult to reach. It is reported that these tribal societies are very much ignorant about their oral health problems. The accessibility of these tribes to dental care is very minimal and neglected.[4],[5],[6],[7] There are no population-based studies evaluating the oral health status among tribal children in Jharkhand, India; so this study was carried out to find the prevalence of malocclusion and gingival diseases in tribal population.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was carried out among 1000 tribal children aged 5–15 years old among 10 tribes of Jharkhand residing in East Singhbhum and West Singhbhum districts. Permissions and consent were obtained from local administrative authorities, ethical committee, and parents, respectively. A structured proforma was used to record demographic data, gingival index (GI), and malocclusion status among the participants. The data collected were entered in Microsoft Excel and subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.0 (IBM). The level of significance was fixed at 5% and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Descriptive statistics was used to find the frequencies, mean, and standard deviation of variables considered in the study.


  Results Top


The study showed that a majority of Santhals used twigs of sakhua tree to routinely clean their teeth. There was a lower use of the toothpaste and toothbrush in comparison to other materials used for cleaning the teeth. In this study, high gingivitis and malocclusion prevalence was seen among the study participants. A total number of 1000 Tribal children were examined, of which 700 were boys and 300 were girls. Boys showed gingivitis prevalence of 79% and girls, 77% [Figure 1]. Total prevalence of malocclusion was seen to be 45% of children [Figure 2]. There was no significant difference between boys and girls.
Figure 1: Prevalence of gingivitis among tribal children

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Figure 2: Prevalence of malocclusion among tribal children

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  Discussion Top


This study was carried out on the tribal population residing in. This study evidently showed that a majority (77%) of tribals routinely used twigs of sakhua trees (Shorearobusta) to clean their mouth. The results of this study are in agreement with the studies conducted by Mandal et al.[3] and Vaish.[7] This study showed that a majority of the tribal children suffered from gingivitis and malocclusion. This finding was comparable to the findings of the study carried out by other authors.[5],[8],[9] Spalj and Plancak[9] in their study among individuals aged 15 years and older found that the mean number of healthy sextants varied from 3 to 5 and the mean number of sextants with bleeding gums or dental calculus varied from 1 to 3. These findings are in accordance with the findings of this study. Jalili et al.[10] conducted a study on tribal children aged 6–13 years, living in the villages of Mandu in Dhar District, Madhya Pradesh, and showed that nearly 30% of the children needed some sort of conservative care. These findings are similar to the findings of this study. The results of this study could form a baseline data for the health administrators for planning suitable programs for the betterment of oral health among the tribals in the District of East Singhbhum and West Singhbhum, as well as across the State of Jharkhand.


  Conclusion Top


This study was conducted to assess the gingival health status and malocclusion of tribals residing in Jharkhand. In this study, the prevalence of high gingivitis and malocclusion was seen among the study participants. A state-wide study would be required to obtain a realistic picture of the oral health status and treatment needs of the tribals residing in Jharkhand.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Kshatriya G Changing perspectives of tribal health in the context of increasing lifestyle diseases in India. J Environ Soc Sci 2014;1:1‐7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Janakiram C, Joseph J, Vasudevan S, Taha F, Deepan Kumar CV, Venkitachalam R, et al. Prevalence and dependency of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Kerala, India. J Oral Hyg Health 2016;4:198.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Mandal S, Ghosh C, Sarkar S, Pal J, Kar S, Bazmi BA Assessment of oral health status of Santal (tribal) children of West Bengal. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33:44-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Raju PK, Vasanti D, Kumar JR, Niranjani K, Kumar MS Oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population of eastern Ghats: An epidemiological study. J Int Oral Health 2015;7:108-10.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ahmad MS, Al-Mamun MA, Begum S, Islam MS, Habib MA, Rahman MM Knowledge and practice about oral hygiene by tribal people (Orao) in Rangpur Region, Bangladesh. Int J Dent Med 2015;1:28‐32.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Gonçalves ÉM, Cavalcanti LC, Firmino RT, Ribeiro GL, Granville-Garcia AF, Menezes VA Dental caries experience among indigenous children and adolescents. J Oral Sci 2015;57:123-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Vaish RP Prevalence of caries among school-going tribal children in Ganjam district in Orissa. J Indian Dent Assoc 1982;54:375‐7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: A cross sectional study. J Public Health Res 2015;4:23‐8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Spalj S, Plancak D Comparison of periodontal health of two different rural population types in Croatia. Acta Stomatol Croat 2000;34:183-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Jalili VP, Sidhu SS, Kharbanda OP Status of dental caries and treatment needs in tribal children of Mandu (central India). J Pierre Fauchard Acad 1993;7:7-15.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

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