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  Most popular articles (Since October 12, 2018)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The outcome of in vivo use of Equator attachment systems with implant-supported maxillary overdenture on patients’ satisfaction and biochemical measuring of MMP-8
Manal R Alammari, Seham B Tayel
2018, 6(3):21-26
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_12_18  
Background: Management of completely edentulous dental patients with compromised oral condition has become a prime concern for dental professionals. Treating patients who were edentulous with an overdenture supported by osseointegrated implants and retained by small diameter attachment system is a highly valuable rehabilitation treatment for older adults. Purpose: To evaluate patients’ satisfaction by oral health–related quality of life who received maxillary implant–assisted overdentures (MIAO) constructed with OT-Equator attachment clinically as well as biochemical measuring of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in the peri-implant soft tissue. Material and Methods: This study included 25 patients rehabilitated with MIAO with OT-Equator attachments that screwed to the abutments and mandibular removable partial denture restoring up to second premolars. Biochemical evaluation of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in peri-implant soft tissue was carried out using sandwich enzyme immunoassay–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then oral health impact profile index was used as a shortened 14-item questionnaire to evaluate the impact of oral health on the quality of life. Results: Collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in the peri-implant sulcular fluid revealed a statistically significant difference in different periods (F = 56.649). Five domains showed a statistically significant improvement at 5% level (functional limitation [P = 0.001], physical pain [P = 0.037], psychological discomfort [P = 0.007], physical disability [P = 0.010], and psychological disability [P = 0.016]) except domains regarding social disability and handicap that showed no significant improvement. Five of the seven domains of the oral health related quality of life (OHIP-14) questionnaire showed a statistically significant improvement at 5% level (functional limitation [P = 0.001], physical pain [P = 0.039], psychological discomfort [P = 0.007], physical disability [P = 0.010], psychological disability P = 0.017]). Conclusion: Results showed that the patients with MIAO were satisfied with their oral health–related quality of life. Expectable and encouraging treatment outcomes among elderly patients in severe situations with bone deficiency in the maxilla can be achieved with OT-Equator attachments. Biochemical analysis of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) was a potential host marker for the condition of peri-implant tissue as it could prevent failure of dental implant.
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Comparison of systemic and topical forms of curcumin in oral submucous fibrosis: A clinical and histopathological evaluation in 120 patients
Aanal Shah, Neelkunvar Maharaja, Sangeeta Shah, Mansi Machhi, Vaidehi Shah, Nipa Chauhan
2018, 6(3):1-4
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_3_18  
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OMSF) is a chronic insidious disease of oral mucosa, which is considered as a premalignant condition but has high malignant potential of approximately 7%–30%. Many treatment modalities have been tried since years but none have proved to be curative. Turmeric has been attributed a number of medicinal properties. Turmeric and its active ingredient, “curcumin” are being studied as chemopreventive agents in India and abroad. This study was proposed to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in patients with OSMF and compare it with conventional treatment such as multivitamin and antioxidant tablets. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients who were clinically and histopathologically confirmed as having OSMF were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group I patients were given tablets, Group II were given capsules, Group III were given oil, and Group IV were given multivitamin tablets. Patients were recalled every 15 days for 8 weeks and results were analyzed using analysis of variance test. Results: After treatment and follow-up, a significant improvement was seen in patients treated with curcumin when compared to those in control group. Conclusion: Curcumin as a treatment modality is efficient, noninvasive, beneficial, and economic for the patients with OSMF.
  382 90 -
Effect of two different types of desensitizing agents on crown retention using glass ionomer cement
Mohammed A Mapkar, Amit Jagtap, Syed Ruby Syed Asadullah
2018, 6(3):12-16
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_8_18  
Introduction: Preparation of vital teeth involves the removal of sound tooth structure, which causes opening of dentinal tubules, thereby causing displacement of the dentinal tubular fluid, leading to dentinal hypersensitivity. After cementation of crowns in such teeth, incidence of pain and hypersensitivity has been reported. An extensive use of desensitizing agents has been observed over the past few decades because of the introduction of newer agents and the increased incidence of post-cementation sensitivity. Dentin desensitizing agents are commonly used in dental practice. But their effects on crown retention have been anecdotal. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three extracted human maxillary first premolar teeth were selected for the study, which were prepared using a special assembly and divided into three groups (i.e., GC + U, GC + G, GC) to compare the effect of Gluma (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) and Ultraseal (Ultradent, USA) on crown retention using glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: It was observed that the group GC was statistically significant with the group GC + U. Conclusion: Of the two agents, Gluma may be safely used with the GIC, whereas Ultraseal is ill-suited to combine with GIC.
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Assessment of different palatal rugae patterns in gender identification
Beenakumary Thiruthara Pappu, Tharayil Anju Gopinathan, Bilahari Naduvakattu
2018, 6(3):17-20
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_11_18  
Background: The palatal rugae number, shape, width, height, and location vary from the left side of the palate to the right side as well as from one person to another, and are unique to every individual. This is the most commonly used scientific method of forensic identification. So this study was conducted with an aim to assess the different patterns of rugae in gender identification. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 40 participants (20 men and 20 women) between the age of 20 and 35 years. Maxillary impression was carried out and cast was poured. The rugae were divided into two halves and each half was highlighted using a lead pencil under spotlight by the examiner. Rugae pattern was classified into straight, wavy, circular, curved, and unification. The shape, number, and length of rugae pattern were studied over cast by the examiner and the mean value for length and numbers was then calculated. The length of each rugae was measured using a vernier caliper in millimeters (mm). Results: The mean number of palatal rugae was more in men (6.16±0.226) compared to that in women (5.86±0.364). The mean length of palatal rugae was more in men (5.96±0.64) than that in women (4.28±0.34), and it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.02). In this study, the straight pattern was more common in both men and women (2.32±0.12 and 1.98±0.02, respectively) than other patterns. But none of the pattern shows a statistically significant association between the different patterns with gender. Conclusion: Straight rugae pattern is the most common pattern in both the groups and the mean number of palatal rugae and length is slightly more in men than that in women.
  307 61 -
Influence of sterilization on mechanical properties and fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments: An in vitro study
Sreeja Janardhanan, Madhavadas Kanisseri, Mini K John
2018, 6(3):5-11
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_6_18  
Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the fatigue resistance of nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic files before and after sterilization, to evaluate the effects of sterilization on NiTi rotary files that were fatigued to half of their average life, and to assess whether sterilization cycles have any effect on the microhardness of NiTi files by testing the Vickers microhardness before and after sterilization. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of sterilization on fatigue resistance and Vickers microhardness of rotary NiTi endodontic instruments.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six NiTi files (ProTaper F2 size) were evaluated for fatigue test and hardness without sterilization and after five cycles of autoclaving. These were grouped into A, B, and C (12 per group). An artificial metallic canal that simulated a curved root canal allowed the instruments to freely rotate inside it. A “C”-shaped clamp made of cast iron was used to hold the two halves of the artificial canals together. X-Smart endomotor (Dentsply, Maillefer, USA), digital stopwatch, autoclave, light mineral oil as lubricant, and so on were also used. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) test was performed as parametric test to compare different groups. To enable multiple comparisons, Duncan’s multiple range test was used as post hoc analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare Vickers microhardness between two groups. Results: The number of cycles to failure in group A, group B, and group C were tabulated and the mean values of each group were calculated and analyzed with variance test (one-way ANOVA test), and it did not show any statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the groups. In the Vickers microhardness test, results showed an increase in the microhardness of NiTi instruments of sterilized group when compared to that of unsterilized group. This was a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: This study has substantiated that autoclaving has relatively no negative impact on the fatigue failure of NiTi instruments; however, a slight increase in hardness is observed on repeated sterilization. The most common reason for failure of the files was flexural strain, which almost always corresponded to the area of maximum curvature of the simulated root canal.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
The mystery of handprints—Dermatoglyphics and dentistry
Mohil Asnani, Ashu Soni, Prachi Asnani, Ekta Mistry, Nimesh Patel, Anshu Gupta
2018, 6(3):31-34
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_2_18  
Dermatoglyphics refers to epidermal ridges present on the palm, sole, fingers, and toes. Over the past 150 years, dermatoglyphics has been a powerful tool in understanding the basic questions in biology and genetics. Its analysis is now beginning to prove useful in the field of dentistry. Each and every individual has unique fingerprints, even twins. These fingerprints remain the same lifelong from their development unless they are damaged by dermal injuries.
  240 34 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of blood contamination on the push-out bond strength of four endodontic root perforation repair materials: An in vitro study
Angel Bhagya, Krishnaprasad Shetty, Sarvepalli Venkata Satish, Ashwini M Patil, Basvana Gowda, Khondakar Mohsin Reza
2018, 6(3):27-30
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_16_18  
Aim: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of four endodontic root perforation repair materials on blood contamination. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 80 single-rooted human canine teeth were used. The crowns of all teeth were removed, and the mid-root dentin was sectioned horizontally into slices with a thickness of 1.0mm by using a diamond disk. In 40 samples, a 27-gauge syringe was used to inject blood into the perforated area, which was taken from the patient. Biodentine (Septodont, Pennsylvania, USA) liquid from a single dose container was emptied into a powder-containing capsule and mixed 30 seconds, was mixed in 10 samples; glass ionomer cement (GIC) (GC Fuji IX; GC, Tokyo, Japan) was mixed in 10 samples; ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (DENTSPLY, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, Oklahoma), hand mixed with sterile water at a powder to liquid ratio of 3:1 in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, was mixed in 10 samples; and Cavit (ESPE Dental Products, Ohio, USA) was mixed in 10 samples and placed in perforation area. In the remaining 40 samples, normal saline irrigation was performed before restoring 10 samples with Biodentine, 10 samples with GIC, 10 samples with ProRoot MTA, and 10 samples with Cavit. The samples were carried in wet gauze piece and placed in a closed container in an incubator at 370°C and 100% humidity until push-out bond strength was carried out. Results: The result was statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc tests. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Conclusion: Push-out bond strength of Biodentine was higher than that of ProRoot MTA, GIC, and Cavit on blood contamination.
  232 41 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Granulomatous diseases: An updated review
Amirneni Sailaja Choudary, Prathiba Prabhakar
2018, 6(3):35-39
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_5_18  
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by genetically heterogeneous conditions, characterized by recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections, and granuloma formation. The genetic defect in any of the five subunits of the nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide phosphatase hydrogenases oxidase complex is responsible for the respiratory burst in phagocytes. Patients with CGD are at an increased risk of life-threatening infections with catalase-positive bacteria and fungi and inflammatory complications such as CGD colitis. The implementation of routine antimicrobial prophylaxis and the advent of azole antifungals have considerably improved their overall survival, life expectancy remains decreased compared to that of the general population.
  205 24 -
CASE REPORTS
Magnification-aided endodontic treatment of mandibular first molar with three distal canals
Neha Kapoor, Anjali Miglani, Amit Gandhi, Rakhi Gupta, Monika Ahlawat, Pankhuri Garg
2018, 6(3):40-43
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_4_18  
The main goal of root canal treatment is thorough debridement of the root canal and filling it three-dimensionally. Failure to negotiate all the canals may lead to an unsuccessful treatment outcome. So it becomes necessary for the clinician to have a meticulous knowledge of aberrations in the root canal system. The majority of mandibular first molars are two rooted with one distal and two mesial canals. Variations such as three mesial and three distal root canals individually or in combination have been reported. Such variations can be quite challenging for the clinician, but with the aid of magnification, proper visualization and detection of extra root canals is possible. This case report depicts a rare occurrence of three canals in the distal root of mandibular first molar and its endodontic management with surgical loupes. An extensive understanding of the most common root canal configuration and its variations is a prerequisite to achieve long-term success of the endodontic treatment. Use of magnification such as surgical loupes aids in the visualization and detection of extra canals and increases the percentage of success of endodontic treatment.
  177 24 -
Non-syndromic supernumerary premolars, a literature review and a report of two cases
Naji Z Arandi
2018, 6(3):44-48
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_10_18  
A parapremolar is a supernumerary tooth that is located in the premolar region. They appear more frequently in the mandible than in the maxilla. Several theories have been suggested to explain this phenomenon, with the “dental lamina hyperactivity theory” found to be the most accepted. Supernumerary premolars are usually impacted. They can be associated with complications or stay asymptomatic. Radiographic identification is very important for the detection of asymptomatic impacted parapremolars. Treatment involves the removal of the supernumerary tooth because of the complications that its presence may cause or to keep it under observational management. This article presents a review of supernumerary premolars and reports two cases of patients who attended the dental clinics of the Faculty of Dentistry at the Arab American University in Palestine.
  156 23 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of disinfection procedures on surface roughness of hard chairside relining and denture base acrylic resins: An in vitro study
Chandrasinh Rajput, Keval Shah, Hiren Rana, Bhagyashree Dave, Yashpreet S Bhatia, Rutu Shah
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_2_19  
Objective: There is a concern that disinfection procedures may adversely affect the surface roughness of relining and acrylic denture base resins. Hence, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical and microwave disinfection on surface roughness of commonly used hard chairside relining (Ufi Gel hard and Kooliner) and acrylic denture base resins (Lucitone 199). Materials and Methods: Powder (polymer) and liquid (monomer) were mixed according to manufacturer’s instructions to prepare 20 specimens from each material. Specimens were divided into two control and two test groups. Surface roughness measurements (Ra, μm) were made after polymerization and water immersion (control groups) and after chemical and microwave disinfection (test groups). Measurements of roughness were statistically analyzed. Result: When compared with control groups, the surface roughness of all three types of materials evaluated were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) by both chemical disinfection (Ufi Gel hard, from 0.16 to 0.28 μm; Kooliner, from 0.18 to 0.29 μm; and Lucitone 199, from 0.14 to 0.26 μm) and microwave disinfection (Ufi Gel hard, from 0.16 to 0.26 μm; Kooliner, from 0.18 to 0.25 μm; and Lucitone 199, from 0.14 to 0.23 μm). For all three types of materials, specimens disinfected in microwave (Ufi Gel hard, 0.26 μm; Kooliner, 0.25 μm; and Lucitone 199, 0.23 μm) showed lower mean surface roughness values than those that were chemically disinfected (Ufi Gel hard, 0.28 μm; Kooliner, 0.29 μm; and Lucitone 199, 0.26 μm) but the difference was significant only for Kooliner (P = 0.015). Conclusion: The result of this in vitro study favored the use of microwave disinfection method as it had less adverse effect on surface roughness of materials compared to that of chemical disinfection.
  74 9 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Assessment of determinants in successful regeneration of class II furcation involvement by guided tissue regeneration: An overview
Sunil Kumar Vaddamanu, Ravi Kadur Sundar Raj, Shankar T Gokhale, Mukhatar A Javali, Mohasin A Khader, N Raghavendra Reddy
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_9_18  
The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate lost periodontal tissues caused by periodontal diseases. Furcation involvement in multi-rooted teeth caused by chronic periodontitis is a difficult task in achieving the periodontal regeneration. Various treatment modalities are available, among them, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) placement has shown promising results. Various prognostic factors such as anatomical and systemic factors have to be considered for the final outcome of periodontal therapy while placing membrane. The aim of the paper was to evaluate various determinants in class II furcation defect by GTR procedure.
  71 11 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of two desensitizing agents on crown retention using zinc phosphate cement
Mohammed A Mapkar, Amit Jagtap, Syed Ruby Syed Asadullah
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_7_18  
Introduction: Preparation of vital teeth involves removal of sound tooth structure, which causes opening of dentinal tubules, thereby causing displacement of the dentinal tubular fluid, leading to dentinal hypersensitivity. After cementation of crowns in such teeth, incidence of pain and hypersensitivity has been reported. An extensive use of desensitizing agents has been observed over the past few decades because of the introduction of newer agents and the increased incidence of post-cementation sensitivity. Dentin desensitizing agents are commonly used in dental practice. But their effects on crown retention have been anecdotal. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three extracted human maxillary first premolar teeth were selected for the study, which were prepared using a special assembly and divided into three groups (i.e., ZP + U, ZP + G, and ZP) to compare the effect of Gluma (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) and Ultraseal (Ultradent, USA) on crown retention using zinc phosphate cement. Results: It was seen that the group ZP + G was statistically significant with groups ZP and ZP + U. However, no such difference was observed between ZP and ZP + U. Conclusion: Both the agents can be used and prove effective when used with zinc phosphate cement. However, the major mode of failure was adhesive in nature with the cement being retained on both the crown and the tooth structure.
  59 8 -
Assessment of orthodontic brackets for the shear bond strength bonded with and without primer: In vitro study
Ayub Khan, Abdul Mueez, Mohsin Reza, Mohammed A Rasheed, Sweta Kattimani
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_15_18  
Introduction: The elementary function of primer is to boost the efficiency of the final bond. Secondarily, they are also pronounced to protect the enamel from the consequent demineralization by the acid etching and to reduce marginal leakage. The use of primer adds a step in the bonding procedure, which necessitates increased chair time risk of moisture contamination and an increased procedural cost. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted premolars were procured and divided into two groups, that is, a conventional adhesive system with and without primer. Later, acrylic blocks were made and the teeth were bonded and then the shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine. Results: Group I (with primer) has the bond strength value of 10.22±2.4MPa and Group II (without primer) has the bond strength value of 9.11±1.596MPa. Conclusion: A conventional adhesive system with and without primer showed SBS in the range satisfactory for clinical usage.
  46 8 -
Buccal mucosal alterations: A mirror of diabetes mellitus
Mitali Dhebri, Sanskriti Gandhi, Rushda B Kazi, Vaibhavi Gore, Prachi Baldawa, Ajit Koshy
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_13_18  
Background: Oral exfoliative cytology can be used as a simple chairside investigation for microscopic study of Diabetes Mellitus. Exfoliative cytology gives an insight to the cellular changes occurring in the buccal mucosa of diabetic individuals, serving as a mirror for diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using exfoliative cytology and its correlation with glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Materials and Methods: Study group consisted of 100 patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Approval from the ethics committee was taken. HbA1c was measured. Buccal smears were collected using exfoliative cytology and were subjected to Rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Smears were scrutinized under Leica Research Microscope. Individuals who smoke, are dependent on alcohol, or have malignancy were excluded to eliminate its effect on cellular shape and morphology. Statistical Analysis: Spearman Rank Correlation. Results: A statistically significant increase in cytological changes are seen in the buccal mucosa as the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin increase. Exfoliated buccal cells revealed micronuclei, enlarged nuclear area, and increased inflammatory cells. Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained, a strong correlation exists between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and buccal mucosal alterations. We are encouraged to venture with a suggestion that exfoliative cytology can be significant as a chairside adjunctive diagnostic tool in the detection of Diabetes Mellitus, apart from regular standard tests.
  46 5 -
Impact of different laser treatment on push-out strength of post luted with resin cement: An in vitro study
Sylvana Achammada, Shamsheer Thayyil, Joseph Joy, Namitha Divakar, Saurabh Sathe, Sreehari Sathyanathan
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_14_18  
Background: The interface of the post and resin cement is a site of likely failure of adhesion. This interface adhesion of the post surface can be improved through different pretreatments such as laser. So the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation on the push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and resin cement. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups, Group 1 (control group), Group 2 (Er,Cr:YSGG), and Group 3 (Er:YAG). FRC post cementation was performed with Etch-and-rinse resin cement. Push-out strength was tested using a universal materials tester. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Services (SPSS), version 20. Results: Highest push-out bond strength was observed in Group 3 (i.e., Er:YAG, 18.1±0.4MPa) followed by Group 2 (i.e., Er,Cr:YSGG, 17.6±0.9MPa) and least strength was seen in Group 1 (i.e., control, 14.7±1.5MPa). A statistically significant difference was observed when the groups were compared to the untreated or control group (P = 0.000). Conclusion: It was concluded that laser treatment, that is, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG, significantly improved the push-out bond strength of FRC posts luted with resin cement.
  48 3 -