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  Most popular articles (Since October 12, 2018)

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Recent advancements in glass ionomer materials with introduction of nanotechnology: A review
Ghada AlOtaibi
January-March 2019, 7(1):21-23
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_17_19  
In dentistry, there is a continuous need of change in techniques and materials, according to the change in demand from patients’ professional perceptions and with advancement in technology. Both components of glass ionomer cements (GICs) inhibit wide chemical diversity, which provide potential of progress in GICs. Therefore, the main aim of this article was to study the various advancements in GICs with the introduction of nanotechnology in GIC. Various modifications in GICs were carried out. This article is an attempt to overview different advances in glass ionomer such as compomers, condensable/self-hardening GIC, low viscosity/flowable GIC, fiber-reinforced GIC, chlorhexidine-impregnated GIC, proline-containing GIC, nano-bioceramic-modified GIC, and calcium aluminate GIC. Nanotechnology is introduced in conventional GIC and resin-modified GIC to improve the mechanical properties of GIC. It has been concluded that large number of modifications were carried out with GIC, and the introduction of nanotechnology had improved the general properties of GIC. Nano-resin-modified GICs (nano-RMGICs) do not possess any substantial advantage or disadvantage, in terms of surface mechanical properties, compared to conventional restorative materials.
  5,081 895 -
Adverse effects of tooth bleaching: A review
Fatima L AlOtaibi
April-June 2019, 7(2):53-55
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_22_19  
Current bleaching methods mainly use hydrogen peroxide as the active agents. Tooth whitening is achieved either by in-office bleaching technique or self-applied or home bleach method. This review focused mainly on the adverse outcomes of tooth bleaching such as cervical root resorption, crown fracture, tooth sensitivity, mucosal reaction, and enamel surface alterations produced during the treatment and the management of vital and non-vital teeth-bleaching procedures. Cervical root resorption is one of the unwanted effects observed with the internal bleaching, especially seen with thermo-catalytic procedures. There is a possibility of crown fracture after intracoronal bleaching most likely due to the extensive removal of the intracoronal dentin. One of the common side effects of external tooth bleaching is the tooth sensitivity that ranged between 15% and 65%. Another important adverse effect of high concentration of hydrogen peroxide bleaching is the mucosal irritation ranged between 30% and 35%. Morphologic changes of enamel were also observed with the use of higher concentration of bleaching agents. In view of this review, it is highly desirable to take all the necessary precautions and considerations while performing tooth-bleaching treatment.
  2,261 281 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of two different types of desensitizing agents on crown retention using glass ionomer cement
Mohammed A Mapkar, Amit Jagtap, Syed Ruby Syed Asadullah
July-September 2018, 6(3):12-16
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_8_18  
Introduction: Preparation of vital teeth involves the removal of sound tooth structure, which causes opening of dentinal tubules, thereby causing displacement of the dentinal tubular fluid, leading to dentinal hypersensitivity. After cementation of crowns in such teeth, incidence of pain and hypersensitivity has been reported. An extensive use of desensitizing agents has been observed over the past few decades because of the introduction of newer agents and the increased incidence of post-cementation sensitivity. Dentin desensitizing agents are commonly used in dental practice. But their effects on crown retention have been anecdotal. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three extracted human maxillary first premolar teeth were selected for the study, which were prepared using a special assembly and divided into three groups (i.e., GC + U, GC + G, GC) to compare the effect of Gluma (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) and Ultraseal (Ultradent, USA) on crown retention using glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: It was observed that the group GC was statistically significant with the group GC + U. Conclusion: Of the two agents, Gluma may be safely used with the GIC, whereas Ultraseal is ill-suited to combine with GIC.
  1,928 218 -
Comparison of systemic and topical forms of curcumin in oral submucous fibrosis: A clinical and histopathological evaluation in 120 patients
Aanal Shah, Neelkunvar Maharaja, Sangeeta Shah, Mansi Machhi, Vaidehi Shah, Nipa Chauhan
July-September 2018, 6(3):1-4
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_3_18  
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OMSF) is a chronic insidious disease of oral mucosa, which is considered as a premalignant condition but has high malignant potential of approximately 7%–30%. Many treatment modalities have been tried since years but none have proved to be curative. Turmeric has been attributed a number of medicinal properties. Turmeric and its active ingredient, “curcumin” are being studied as chemopreventive agents in India and abroad. This study was proposed to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in patients with OSMF and compare it with conventional treatment such as multivitamin and antioxidant tablets. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients who were clinically and histopathologically confirmed as having OSMF were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group I patients were given tablets, Group II were given capsules, Group III were given oil, and Group IV were given multivitamin tablets. Patients were recalled every 15 days for 8 weeks and results were analyzed using analysis of variance test. Results: After treatment and follow-up, a significant improvement was seen in patients treated with curcumin when compared to those in control group. Conclusion: Curcumin as a treatment modality is efficient, noninvasive, beneficial, and economic for the patients with OSMF.
  1,637 273 -
Assessment of different palatal rugae patterns in gender identification
Beenakumary Thiruthara Pappu, Tharayil Anju Gopinathan, Bilahari Naduvakattu
July-September 2018, 6(3):17-20
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_11_18  
Background: The palatal rugae number, shape, width, height, and location vary from the left side of the palate to the right side as well as from one person to another, and are unique to every individual. This is the most commonly used scientific method of forensic identification. So this study was conducted with an aim to assess the different patterns of rugae in gender identification. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 40 participants (20 men and 20 women) between the age of 20 and 35 years. Maxillary impression was carried out and cast was poured. The rugae were divided into two halves and each half was highlighted using a lead pencil under spotlight by the examiner. Rugae pattern was classified into straight, wavy, circular, curved, and unification. The shape, number, and length of rugae pattern were studied over cast by the examiner and the mean value for length and numbers was then calculated. The length of each rugae was measured using a vernier caliper in millimeters (mm). Results: The mean number of palatal rugae was more in men (6.16±0.226) compared to that in women (5.86±0.364). The mean length of palatal rugae was more in men (5.96±0.64) than that in women (4.28±0.34), and it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.02). In this study, the straight pattern was more common in both men and women (2.32±0.12 and 1.98±0.02, respectively) than other patterns. But none of the pattern shows a statistically significant association between the different patterns with gender. Conclusion: Straight rugae pattern is the most common pattern in both the groups and the mean number of palatal rugae and length is slightly more in men than that in women.
  1,601 197 -
Influence of sterilization on mechanical properties and fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments: An in vitro study
Sreeja Janardhanan, Madhavadas Kanisseri, Mini K John
July-September 2018, 6(3):5-11
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_6_18  
Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the fatigue resistance of nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic files before and after sterilization, to evaluate the effects of sterilization on NiTi rotary files that were fatigued to half of their average life, and to assess whether sterilization cycles have any effect on the microhardness of NiTi files by testing the Vickers microhardness before and after sterilization. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of sterilization on fatigue resistance and Vickers microhardness of rotary NiTi endodontic instruments.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six NiTi files (ProTaper F2 size) were evaluated for fatigue test and hardness without sterilization and after five cycles of autoclaving. These were grouped into A, B, and C (12 per group). An artificial metallic canal that simulated a curved root canal allowed the instruments to freely rotate inside it. A “C”-shaped clamp made of cast iron was used to hold the two halves of the artificial canals together. X-Smart endomotor (Dentsply, Maillefer, USA), digital stopwatch, autoclave, light mineral oil as lubricant, and so on were also used. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) test was performed as parametric test to compare different groups. To enable multiple comparisons, Duncan’s multiple range test was used as post hoc analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare Vickers microhardness between two groups. Results: The number of cycles to failure in group A, group B, and group C were tabulated and the mean values of each group were calculated and analyzed with variance test (one-way ANOVA test), and it did not show any statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the groups. In the Vickers microhardness test, results showed an increase in the microhardness of NiTi instruments of sterilized group when compared to that of unsterilized group. This was a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: This study has substantiated that autoclaving has relatively no negative impact on the fatigue failure of NiTi instruments; however, a slight increase in hardness is observed on repeated sterilization. The most common reason for failure of the files was flexural strain, which almost always corresponded to the area of maximum curvature of the simulated root canal.
  1,604 193 -
The outcome of in vivo use of Equator attachment systems with implant-supported maxillary overdenture on patients’ satisfaction and biochemical measuring of MMP-8
Manal R Alammari, Seham B Tayel
July-September 2018, 6(3):21-26
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_12_18  
Background: Management of completely edentulous dental patients with compromised oral condition has become a prime concern for dental professionals. Treating patients who were edentulous with an overdenture supported by osseointegrated implants and retained by small diameter attachment system is a highly valuable rehabilitation treatment for older adults. Purpose: To evaluate patients’ satisfaction by oral health–related quality of life who received maxillary implant–assisted overdentures (MIAO) constructed with OT-Equator attachment clinically as well as biochemical measuring of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in the peri-implant soft tissue. Material and Methods: This study included 25 patients rehabilitated with MIAO with OT-Equator attachments that screwed to the abutments and mandibular removable partial denture restoring up to second premolars. Biochemical evaluation of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in peri-implant soft tissue was carried out using sandwich enzyme immunoassay–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then oral health impact profile index was used as a shortened 14-item questionnaire to evaluate the impact of oral health on the quality of life. Results: Collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in the peri-implant sulcular fluid revealed a statistically significant difference in different periods (F = 56.649). Five domains showed a statistically significant improvement at 5% level (functional limitation [P = 0.001], physical pain [P = 0.037], psychological discomfort [P = 0.007], physical disability [P = 0.010], and psychological disability [P = 0.016]) except domains regarding social disability and handicap that showed no significant improvement. Five of the seven domains of the oral health related quality of life (OHIP-14) questionnaire showed a statistically significant improvement at 5% level (functional limitation [P = 0.001], physical pain [P = 0.039], psychological discomfort [P = 0.007], physical disability [P = 0.010], psychological disability P = 0.017]). Conclusion: Results showed that the patients with MIAO were satisfied with their oral health–related quality of life. Expectable and encouraging treatment outcomes among elderly patients in severe situations with bone deficiency in the maxilla can be achieved with OT-Equator attachments. Biochemical analysis of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) was a potential host marker for the condition of peri-implant tissue as it could prevent failure of dental implant.
  1,567 229 -
Compressive strength of three different restorative materials (in vitro study)
Mohammad Yaman Seirawan, Mazen Doumani, Mohammad Kinan Seirawan, Adnan Habib, Mazen Dayoub
January-March 2019, 7(1):4-7
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_13_19  
Objective: This study aimed to compare the compressive strength of zinc-reinforced glass ionomer (ZRGI) restorations with high-viscosity glass ionomer (HVGI) cement and posterior composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four cylindrical blocks (6 ± 0.1mm height, 4 ± 0.1mm diameter) were prepared from the three studied materials using a prefabricated Teflon mold and were divided into three equal groups. The compressive strength test was performed by Instron mechanical test system model 1195. Statistical analysis was performed depending on analysis of variance and least significant difference tests at 95% significance level. Results: Posterior composite restoration showed the highest compressive strength (239MPa), whereas there was no difference between ZRGI and HVGI (154MPa and 151MPa, respectively). Conclusions: Although the compressive strength of ZRGI was close to that of HVGI, this fact does not give ZRGI any preference, but it is possible that improvements can be reflected. Other properties can be studied later. We recommend not to rely on ZRGI as permanent restoration instead of posterior composite resin restoration.
  1,554 180 -
Comparative evaluation of surface roughness of novel resin composite Cention N with Filtek Z350 XT: In vitro study
Amith Setty, Jyothi Nagesh, Jayashankara Chatra Marigowda, Anil kumar Shivanna, Sharath Kumar Paluvary, Girish Sooranagenahalli Ashwathappa
January-March 2019, 7(1):15-17
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_9_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the surface roughness of Cention N and Filtek Z350 XT resin composite. Null Hypothesis: There is no difference observed in surface roughness between the Cention N and Filtek Z350 XT resin composite. Introduction: The use of resin composites in restorative dentistry has markedly increased in recent years due to increased demand for esthetics. The advent of novel fluoride-releasing resin composite Cention N has brought enormous benefits. Finishing and polishing of composite resin restorations are essential steps in restorative dentistry. However, there are no studies available in literatures regarding the effective use of Soflex finishing and polishing with Cention N. Hence, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the surface roughness of novel resin composite Cention N and compare with Filtek Z350 XT resin composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four specimens were prepared in Teflon plastic mold of 8-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness, and were divided into group 1 (Filtek Z350 XT [n = 32]) and group 2 (Cention N [n = 32]). They were further subdivided into group 1A (Matrix finish [n = 16]) and 1B (Soflex [n = 16]), and group 2A (Matrix finish [n = 16]) and 2B (Soflex [n = 16]). Surface roughness was measured using surface profilometer. Results: When comparing the mean values and standard deviations of surface roughness of four groups using one-way ANOVA, it was found that there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in mean surface roughness between the four groups. Conclusion: All the groups presented the values that are below or approximating baseline value for bacterial or plaque retention.
  1,423 284 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Assessment of determinants in successful regeneration of class II furcation involvement by guided tissue regeneration: An overview
Sunil Kumar Vaddamanu, Ravi Kadur Sundar Raj, Shankar T Gokhale, Mukhatar A Javali, Mohasin A Khader, N Raghavendra Reddy
October-December 2018, 6(4):85-88
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_9_18  
The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate lost periodontal tissues caused by periodontal diseases. Furcation involvement in multi-rooted teeth caused by chronic periodontitis is a difficult task in achieving the periodontal regeneration. Various treatment modalities are available, among them, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) placement has shown promising results. Various prognostic factors such as anatomical and systemic factors have to be considered for the final outcome of periodontal therapy while placing membrane. The aim of the paper was to evaluate various determinants in class II furcation defect by GTR procedure.
  1,480 188 -
The mystery of handprints—Dermatoglyphics and dentistry
Mohil Asnani, Ashu Soni, Prachi Asnani, Ekta Mistry, Nimesh Patel, Anshu Gupta
July-September 2018, 6(3):31-34
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_2_18  
Dermatoglyphics refers to epidermal ridges present on the palm, sole, fingers, and toes. Over the past 150 years, dermatoglyphics has been a powerful tool in understanding the basic questions in biology and genetics. Its analysis is now beginning to prove useful in the field of dentistry. Each and every individual has unique fingerprints, even twins. These fingerprints remain the same lifelong from their development unless they are damaged by dermal injuries.
  1,461 162 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of blood contamination on the push-out bond strength of four endodontic root perforation repair materials: An in vitro study
Angel Bhagya, Krishnaprasad Shetty, Sarvepalli Venkata Satish, Ashwini M Patil, Basvana Gowda, Khondakar Mohsin Reza
July-September 2018, 6(3):27-30
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_16_18  
Aim: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of four endodontic root perforation repair materials on blood contamination. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 80 single-rooted human canine teeth were used. The crowns of all teeth were removed, and the mid-root dentin was sectioned horizontally into slices with a thickness of 1.0mm by using a diamond disk. In 40 samples, a 27-gauge syringe was used to inject blood into the perforated area, which was taken from the patient. Biodentine (Septodont, Pennsylvania, USA) liquid from a single dose container was emptied into a powder-containing capsule and mixed 30 seconds, was mixed in 10 samples; glass ionomer cement (GIC) (GC Fuji IX; GC, Tokyo, Japan) was mixed in 10 samples; ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (DENTSPLY, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, Oklahoma), hand mixed with sterile water at a powder to liquid ratio of 3:1 in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, was mixed in 10 samples; and Cavit (ESPE Dental Products, Ohio, USA) was mixed in 10 samples and placed in perforation area. In the remaining 40 samples, normal saline irrigation was performed before restoring 10 samples with Biodentine, 10 samples with GIC, 10 samples with ProRoot MTA, and 10 samples with Cavit. The samples were carried in wet gauze piece and placed in a closed container in an incubator at 370°C and 100% humidity until push-out bond strength was carried out. Results: The result was statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc tests. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Conclusion: Push-out bond strength of Biodentine was higher than that of ProRoot MTA, GIC, and Cavit on blood contamination.
  1,427 190 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of maxillofacial radiology in expediting forensic odontology
Shruti Sinha, Charu Singh, Sunira Chandra, Siddharth Kumar Singh, Palkin Mehta
October-December 2018, 6(4):89-92
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_5_19  
In the last few decades, forensic odontology has developed as a separate specialty that deals with examination of dental evidences, their proper evaluation, and correct management for law proceedings in the interest of justice. It is mainly concerned with person identification, age estimation, gender determination, human abuse, bite mark investigation, and DNA analysis, in incidents of natural disasters and medico-legal cases. Maxillofacial radiology is a promising tool in forensic science as radiographs capture the exact anatomic and skeletal features that can then be matched with the original records for person identification and can also provide minute forms of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs in cases of mass disasters. The use of imaging is increasing day by day as it is efficient, quick, and comparatively easy, less expensive as compared to available DNA technologies, and can also be applied to both living individuals as well as dead. The present article aims to discuss the various trends that have evolved in forensic radiology and to appraise their contribution in the field of forensic odontology.
  1,402 215 -
Granulomatous diseases: An updated review
Amirneni Sailaja Choudary, Prathiba Prabhakar
July-September 2018, 6(3):35-39
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_5_18  
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by genetically heterogeneous conditions, characterized by recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections, and granuloma formation. The genetic defect in any of the five subunits of the nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide phosphatase hydrogenases oxidase complex is responsible for the respiratory burst in phagocytes. Patients with CGD are at an increased risk of life-threatening infections with catalase-positive bacteria and fungi and inflammatory complications such as CGD colitis. The implementation of routine antimicrobial prophylaxis and the advent of azole antifungals have considerably improved their overall survival, life expectancy remains decreased compared to that of the general population.
  1,443 173 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of different laser treatments on push-out strength of post luted with resin cement: An in vitro study
Sylvana Achammada, Shamsheer Thayyil, Joseph Joy, Namitha Divakar, Saurabh Sathe, Sreehari Sathyanathan
October-December 2018, 6(4):49-53
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_14_18  
Background: The interface of the post and resin cement is a site of likely failure of adhesion. This interface adhesion of the post surface can be improved through different pretreatments such as laser. So the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation on the push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and resin cement. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups, Group 1 (control group), Group 2 (Er,Cr:YSGG), and Group 3 (Er:YAG). FRC post cementation was performed with Etch-and-rinse resin cement. Push-out strength was tested using a universal materials tester. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Services (SPSS), version 20. Results: Highest push-out bond strength was observed in Group 3 (i.e., Er:YAG, 18.1±0.4MPa) followed by Group 2 (i.e., Er,Cr:YSGG, 17.6±0.9MPa) and least strength was seen in Group 1 (i.e., control, 14.7±1.5MPa). A statistically significant difference was observed when the groups were compared to the untreated or control group (P = 0.000). Conclusion: It was concluded that laser treatment, that is, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG, significantly improved the push-out bond strength of FRC posts luted with resin cement.
  1,445 154 -
Buccal mucosal alterations: A mirror of diabetes mellitus
Mitali Dhebri, Sanskriti Gandhi, Rushda B Kazi, Vaibhavi Gore, Prachi Baldawa, Ajit Koshy
October-December 2018, 6(4):69-72
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_13_18  
Background: Oral exfoliative cytology can be used as a simple chairside investigation for microscopic study of Diabetes Mellitus. Exfoliative cytology gives an insight to the cellular changes occurring in the buccal mucosa of diabetic individuals, serving as a mirror for diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using exfoliative cytology and its correlation with glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Materials and Methods: Study group consisted of 100 patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Approval from the ethics committee was taken. HbA1c was measured. Buccal smears were collected using exfoliative cytology and were subjected to Rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Smears were scrutinized under Leica Research Microscope. Individuals who smoke, are dependent on alcohol, or have malignancy were excluded to eliminate its effect on cellular shape and morphology. Statistical Analysis: Spearman Rank Correlation. Results: A statistically significant increase in cytological changes are seen in the buccal mucosa as the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin increase. Exfoliated buccal cells revealed micronuclei, enlarged nuclear area, and increased inflammatory cells. Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained, a strong correlation exists between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and buccal mucosal alterations. We are encouraged to venture with a suggestion that exfoliative cytology can be significant as a chairside adjunctive diagnostic tool in the detection of Diabetes Mellitus, apart from regular standard tests.
  1,466 133 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Activ GP system in endodontics: A review
Mazen Doumani, Adnan Habib, Razan O Khallof, Mohammad I Albakheet, Mohammed G Alghamdi, Turki I Alowyyed
July-September 2019, 7(3):74-76
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_25_19  
The ideal endodontic obturating material must cut communication between the root canal and the periodontal tissues. It should also be nongenotoxic, non-carcinogenic, nontoxic, biocompatible with host tissues, insoluble in tissue fluids, and dimensionally stable. Because the available root canal filling materials do not have these ideal properties, Activ GP system was developed and recommended to be used as a root canal filling material. The use of a new material should be based on laboratory, biological, and clinical studies. The aim of this review was to update previously published information and present a list of articles from various highly indexed endodontic journals regarding Activ GP system, cytotoxicity, pH, solubility, anti-biofilm activity, sealing properties, resistance to fracture of dental roots obturated with Activ GP system, retreatment, and the effect of irrigating solutions on bond strength of this system.
  1,377 133 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A clinical comparative study of four interocclusal recording materials
Mohammad Kinan Seirawan, Sham Alobeissi, Mazen Doumani, Bilal D Mourshed, Mohammad Yaman Seirawan, Khaled Al-Hallak, Eyad Alshaarani
April-June 2019, 7(2):30-34
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_23_19  
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four interocclusal recording materials and its effect on the relationship of the casts. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 25 partially edentulous patients with upper complete natural dentition and lower bilateral free end edentulous areas. Ten pairs of reference points were drawn on the lateral surfaces of the base of each cast pair when the casts were manually articulated in maximum intercuspation position. The vertical distances between each pair of reference points were measured by a scanner and computerized software. Four interocclusal records were made for each patient by four interocclusal recording materials: zinc oxide eugenol paste, polyvinyl siloxane, Aluwax, and Baseplate wax. The casts were fixed on each record, and the vertical separation, anteroposterior, and lateral displacement were measured and calculated. Results: Polyvinyl siloxane was significantly more likely to lead to successful articulation than other interocclusal recording materials. Aluwax caused the highest vertical separation whereas Baseplate wax caused the greatest lateral displacement between the casts. Conclusion: Polyvinyl siloxane interocclusal recording material was the most accurate whereas Waxes were the least reliable materials.
  1,237 182 -
Effect of two desensitizing agents on crown retention using zinc phosphate cement
Mohammed A Mapkar, Amit Jagtap, Syed Ruby Syed Asadullah
October-December 2018, 6(4):64-68
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_7_18  
Introduction: Preparation of vital teeth involves removal of sound tooth structure, which causes opening of dentinal tubules, thereby causing displacement of the dentinal tubular fluid, leading to dentinal hypersensitivity. After cementation of crowns in such teeth, incidence of pain and hypersensitivity has been reported. An extensive use of desensitizing agents has been observed over the past few decades because of the introduction of newer agents and the increased incidence of post-cementation sensitivity. Dentin desensitizing agents are commonly used in dental practice. But their effects on crown retention have been anecdotal. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three extracted human maxillary first premolar teeth were selected for the study, which were prepared using a special assembly and divided into three groups (i.e., ZP + U, ZP + G, and ZP) to compare the effect of Gluma (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) and Ultraseal (Ultradent, USA) on crown retention using zinc phosphate cement. Results: It was seen that the group ZP + G was statistically significant with groups ZP and ZP + U. However, no such difference was observed between ZP and ZP + U. Conclusion: Both the agents can be used and prove effective when used with zinc phosphate cement. However, the major mode of failure was adhesive in nature with the cement being retained on both the crown and the tooth structure.
  1,271 137 -
CASE REPORTS
Non-syndromic supernumerary premolars, a literature review and a report of two cases
Naji Z Arandi
July-September 2018, 6(3):44-48
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_10_18  
A parapremolar is a supernumerary tooth that is located in the premolar region. They appear more frequently in the mandible than in the maxilla. Several theories have been suggested to explain this phenomenon, with the “dental lamina hyperactivity theory” found to be the most accepted. Supernumerary premolars are usually impacted. They can be associated with complications or stay asymptomatic. Radiographic identification is very important for the detection of asymptomatic impacted parapremolars. Treatment involves the removal of the supernumerary tooth because of the complications that its presence may cause or to keep it under observational management. This article presents a review of supernumerary premolars and reports two cases of patients who attended the dental clinics of the Faculty of Dentistry at the Arab American University in Palestine.
  1,263 144 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of disinfection procedures on surface roughness of hard chairside relining and denture base acrylic resins: An in vitro study
Chandrasinh Rajput, Keval Shah, Hiren Rana, Bhagyashree Dave, Yashpreet S Bhatia, Rutu Shah
October-December 2018, 6(4):54-57
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_2_19  
Objective: There is a concern that disinfection procedures may adversely affect the surface roughness of relining and acrylic denture base resins. Hence, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical and microwave disinfection on surface roughness of commonly used hard chairside relining (Ufi Gel hard and Kooliner) and acrylic denture base resins (Lucitone 199). Materials and Methods: Powder (polymer) and liquid (monomer) were mixed according to manufacturer’s instructions to prepare 20 specimens from each material. Specimens were divided into two control and two test groups. Surface roughness measurements (Ra, μm) were made after polymerization and water immersion (control groups) and after chemical and microwave disinfection (test groups). Measurements of roughness were statistically analyzed. Result: When compared with control groups, the surface roughness of all three types of materials evaluated were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) by both chemical disinfection (Ufi Gel hard, from 0.16 to 0.28 μm; Kooliner, from 0.18 to 0.29 μm; and Lucitone 199, from 0.14 to 0.26 μm) and microwave disinfection (Ufi Gel hard, from 0.16 to 0.26 μm; Kooliner, from 0.18 to 0.25 μm; and Lucitone 199, from 0.14 to 0.23 μm). For all three types of materials, specimens disinfected in microwave (Ufi Gel hard, 0.26 μm; Kooliner, 0.25 μm; and Lucitone 199, 0.23 μm) showed lower mean surface roughness values than those that were chemically disinfected (Ufi Gel hard, 0.28 μm; Kooliner, 0.29 μm; and Lucitone 199, 0.26 μm) but the difference was significant only for Kooliner (P = 0.015). Conclusion: The result of this in vitro study favored the use of microwave disinfection method as it had less adverse effect on surface roughness of materials compared to that of chemical disinfection.
  1,229 137 -
CASE REPORTS
Magnification-aided endodontic treatment of mandibular first molar with three distal canals
Neha Kapoor, Anjali Miglani, Amit Gandhi, Rakhi Gupta, Monika Ahlawat, Pankhuri Garg
July-September 2018, 6(3):40-43
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_4_18  
The main goal of root canal treatment is thorough debridement of the root canal and filling it three-dimensionally. Failure to negotiate all the canals may lead to an unsuccessful treatment outcome. So it becomes necessary for the clinician to have a meticulous knowledge of aberrations in the root canal system. The majority of mandibular first molars are two rooted with one distal and two mesial canals. Variations such as three mesial and three distal root canals individually or in combination have been reported. Such variations can be quite challenging for the clinician, but with the aid of magnification, proper visualization and detection of extra root canals is possible. This case report depicts a rare occurrence of three canals in the distal root of mandibular first molar and its endodontic management with surgical loupes. An extensive understanding of the most common root canal configuration and its variations is a prerequisite to achieve long-term success of the endodontic treatment. Use of magnification such as surgical loupes aids in the visualization and detection of extra canals and increases the percentage of success of endodontic treatment.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A cytological study of leukoplakia in oral cavity at Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad
Animesh K Shivam, Farrukh Azam, Heena Sadiq
January-March 2019, 7(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_16_19  
Objectives: To assess the role of cytology in leukoplakia and its etiology in patients attending outpatient department at Patliputra Medical College and Hospital (PMCH), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. Materials and Methods: The diagnosis of leukoplakia was based on clinical examination and cytological smear. Results: The total number of patients affected by leukoplakia in this time duration was 268. Of these, 238 (86%) were male, whereas 30 were female (14%). Greatest proportion of patients with leukoplakia had a habit of consuming khaini and tobacco in other forms. Mild form of leukoplakia was commonly seen. Conclusion: This study reveals that the incidence rate of leukoplakia in patients visiting PMCH, Dhanbad, was 1%. Males were more affected than females. Use of cytology in mass screening programs helped in identifying leukoplakias with parakeratotic patterns and leading to those cases, which need careful long-term follow-up.
  1,187 153 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Activ GP system in endodontics: A review
Mazen Doumani, Adnan Habib, Razan O Khallof, Mohammad I Albakheet, Mohammed G Alghamdi, Turki I Alowyyed
0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_25_19  
The ideal endodontic obturating material must cut communication between the root canal and the periodontal tissues. It should also be nongenotoxic, non-carcinogenic, nontoxic, biocompatible with host tissues, insoluble in tissue fluids, and dimensionally stable. Because the available root canal filling materials do not have these ideal properties, Activ GP system was developed and recommended to be used as a root canal filling material. The use of a new material should be based on laboratory, biological, and clinical studies. The aim of this review was to update previously published information and present a list of articles from various highly indexed endodontic journals regarding Activ GP system, cytotoxicity, pH, solubility, anti-biofilm activity, sealing properties, resistance to fracture of dental roots obturated with Activ GP system, retreatment, and the effect of irrigating solutions on bond strength of this system.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A clinical assessment of postoperative complications of mandibular fractures using Mandibular Injury Severity Score at K. R. Hospital, Mysore
S Sandeep Tejaswi, TS Subash
January-March 2019, 7(1):12-14
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_10_19  
Introduction: Among the facial injury, the mandibular fractures represent a substantial portion of surgical case load to trauma centers. Management of this common injury varies greatly and is still driven by expert opinion or empirical data. Scientific study of mandible fractures and their treatment has been hampered by the lack of an injury cataloging system that allows a disciplined, systematic aggregation of collective clinical experiences. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Dentistry, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Karnataka, Mysore, India. Subjects selected were above 16 years of age with isolated mandibular fractures who were eligible to undergo treatment. A total of 50 patients were divided into two groups, closed and open reduction, each having 25 subjects. Each individual case was evaluated for FLOSID components separately. Mandibular Injury Severity Score (MISS) was assigned based on summated results of FLOSID components. Obtained complication scores and MISS were correlated statistically using Spearman’s correlation coefficient among the different groups. Results: On comparison between the two groups, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), statistical analysis using Mann–Whitney U test showed mean and median values for the ORIF group as 6.52 and 5 (3–11), respectively whereas mean (SD) and median values in the MMF group as 5.52 (3.31) and 5 (3–3.5), respectively. There was proportional increase in both MISS and complication score. The aforementioned analysis indicates that MISS is a predictable parameter in assessing postoperative complications of mandibular fracture and also in predicting the complication outcomes in clinical situation. Conclusion: This study concludes that the higher the MISS, the higher the rate of complications in groups treated with ORIF. MISS however did not correlate much with groups treated using closed method. FLOSID taxonomy predicted the exact details of cases and helped arriving at MISSs, of individual cases with complication score to help the clinician to arrive and predict postoperative events, and to adopt proper treatment plan for individual cases, to minimize the complication score as low as possible, for the benefit patients with Maxillofacial trauma.
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