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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 81-99

Online since Tuesday, December 24, 2019

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Bupivacaine for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar: A comparative evaluation with lignocaine p. 81
Naqoosh Haidry, Narahari Ranganatha, Ritesh Raj, Sandeep Kashyap, Amit Kumar, Ankur Singh
Background: Removal of impacted molar teeth is the most frequent oral surgical procedure often followed by mild to severe postoperative pain, and it has a significant impact on the patient’s postoperative quality of life. The use of long-acting local anesthetics is a promising strategy to improve postoperative analgesia. The study aimed to compare the efficacy of bupivacaine with that of lignocaine, which has already proven its efficacy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 subjects requiring the surgical removal of impacted mandibular molar teeth. A total of 25 subjects received 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline, whereas the remaining 25 received 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 adrenaline. The time of onset of action and duration of anesthesia were recorded. The intensity of postoperative pain was determined using the visual analog scale. The data obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean time of onset of action was 2.5min and 5min for lignocaine and bupivacaine, respectively. The longer duration of action and lesser pain intensity were observed with bupivacaine, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Bupivacaine provides better and prolonged anesthesia and analgesia postoperative to surgical removal of the impacted mandibular third molar. Hence, the use of bupivacaine in the surgical removal of the impacted third molar is desirable.
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“Efficiency of removal of debris from root canal system with help of different irrigation system:” An in vitro scanning electron microscope study p. 84
Nikunj A Patel, Kiran A Vachhani, Md Muzammil Khan, Anshu Gupta, Prateek J Pachore, Rajendra Bharatiya
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of EndoActivator, passive ultrasonic irrigation, side-vented needle, and syringe irrigation for removal of dentinal debris (smear layer) in root canals prepared with same master apical file sizes. Materials and Methods: Forty mandibular premolars with mature apices (extracted) were selected for this study. Each tooth was decoronated 2mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction with a diamond disk to facilitate straight-line access for instrumentation. Apical patency was determined by inserting an ISO # 08 K-file. Working length was determined by placing a size 15 K-file into the canal until it appeared at the apical foramen; this length was measured and the working length was set at 1mm short of this measurement. The roots were sealed with yellow sticky wax (DPI) to avoid apical extrusion during irrigation. The root canals were prepared to size 40, 0.02 taper, using step-back technique. After each instrument change, manual irrigation was performed with 2-mL NaOCl (3%) using a 26-gauge syringe. Then, a total of 40 samples were randomly distributed into four groups. According to group, root canals were irrigated with EndoActivator, passive ultrasonic irrigation, side-vented needle, and syringe irrigation. The roots were spilt and sent laboratory for examination under scanning electron microscope. Results: Ultrasonic irrigation had highest removal of the smear layer than the other irrigation systems followed by EndoActivator, side-vented needle, and syringe irrigation. Conclusion: Ultrasonic irrigation resulted in better removal of the smear layer in the apical third of root canals than EndoActivator, side-vented needle, and conventional needle irrigation.
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Comparative evaluation of biofilm formation among three differently treated surfaces on titanium samples along with gentamicin coating p. 88
R Arun, Nikhil S Rajan, Nissy E George, Tk Chandrathara, Hari R Krishnan, S Gayathri
Background: For many years, osseointegrated oral implants have been successfully used as an excellent method for replacement of missing teeth. Biofilm formation on oral implants can cause inflammation of peri-implant tissues, which can affect the long-term success of osseointegrated implants. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate biofilm formation on gentamicin-treated implants and to conduct a comparative evaluation process of biofilm formation among three differently treated surfaces on titanium samples along with gentamicin coating. Materials and Methods: Samples were blasted and later loaded with gentamicin drug by vacuum drying and evaluation of the strains was carried out for biofilm. Bacterial adhesion was evaluated at different time intervals of 0, 1, 4, 24, and 48h. Results: Bacterial adhesion was sequentially increasing in polished samples. Initial bacterial adhesion was higher on surface-modified samples as compared to polished samples in the first hour. Bacterial adhesion was retarded in gentamicin-coated hydroxyapatite (HA)-blasted samples up to 24h. Bacterial adhesion was considerably less on TiO2-blasted samples up to 48h. Conclusion: Implant surface modified with TiO2 and gentamicin showed delayed biofilm formation even up to 48h. Surface modification with HA has gained considerable osteoconductive surface, which is a boon for the production of future implants with less expense; however, further studies need to be carried out to prove its efficacy and effectiveness.
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Assessment of oral mucosal changes among tobacco users and nonusers in southern India p. 92
Parveen S Shaik, Srinivas Pachava, Srinivas Ravoori, Chinna B Palli, Asha Lodagala, Suresh C Yaddanapalli
Introduction: Tobacco use and its association with oral diseases are a major contributor to the global oral disease burden and are responsible for various oral mucosal changes among adults. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess oral mucosal changes among male tobacco users and nonusers, aged 15 years and older. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 tobacco users and 300 nonusers, who were matched for age. Male patients aged ≥15 years attending outpatient department were included. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire (Cronbach α = 0.88) and modified World Health Organization oral health assessment form 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20.0; descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression were used; and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in this study was 27.7%, whereas in tobacco users, it was 44.7%, and in tobacco nonusers, it was 10.7%. Smokeless tobacco users were associated with oral mucosal lesions such as oral cancer (33.3%) and leukoplakia (33.3%), whereas individuals who consume smoke form of tobacco were associated with smoker’s palate (29.1%) (P = 0.001). The chance of occurrence of oral mucosal changes was 0.373 units more among tobacco users than that among tobacco nonusers, which was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Oral mucosal changes were found to be high among tobacco users compared to those among tobacco nonusers. Smoking tobacco was associated with benign lesions such as leukoplakia and nicotine stomatitis, whereas smokeless tobacco was associated with potentially malignant lesions such as oral cancer, which reflect the lack of awareness or ignorance for the oral health issues.
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Congenital hemifacial hypertrophy: A case report p. 96
Sheela N Veerappa, Bharathi V Srinivas, Dharmesh S Hampapura, Kiran Honnalingaiah, Jeevan V Shetty
It is a rare developmental anomaly characterized by progressive and marked unilateral facial tissue changes, which involves the soft tissues, facial bones, and the teeth. It is observed at birth and the growth ceases after puberty with pronounced facial asymmetry with an unknown etiology.
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