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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Volume 6 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 1-48

Online since Thursday, January 17, 2019

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Comparison of systemic and topical forms of curcumin in oral submucous fibrosis: A clinical and histopathological evaluation in 120 patients p. 1
Aanal Shah, Neelkunvar Maharaja, Sangeeta Shah, Mansi Machhi, Vaidehi Shah, Nipa Chauhan
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OMSF) is a chronic insidious disease of oral mucosa, which is considered as a premalignant condition but has high malignant potential of approximately 7%–30%. Many treatment modalities have been tried since years but none have proved to be curative. Turmeric has been attributed a number of medicinal properties. Turmeric and its active ingredient, “curcumin” are being studied as chemopreventive agents in India and abroad. This study was proposed to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in patients with OSMF and compare it with conventional treatment such as multivitamin and antioxidant tablets. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients who were clinically and histopathologically confirmed as having OSMF were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group I patients were given tablets, Group II were given capsules, Group III were given oil, and Group IV were given multivitamin tablets. Patients were recalled every 15 days for 8 weeks and results were analyzed using analysis of variance test. Results: After treatment and follow-up, a significant improvement was seen in patients treated with curcumin when compared to those in control group. Conclusion: Curcumin as a treatment modality is efficient, noninvasive, beneficial, and economic for the patients with OSMF.
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Influence of sterilization on mechanical properties and fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments: An in vitro study p. 5
Sreeja Janardhanan, Madhavadas Kanisseri, Mini K John
Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the fatigue resistance of nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic files before and after sterilization, to evaluate the effects of sterilization on NiTi rotary files that were fatigued to half of their average life, and to assess whether sterilization cycles have any effect on the microhardness of NiTi files by testing the Vickers microhardness before and after sterilization. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of sterilization on fatigue resistance and Vickers microhardness of rotary NiTi endodontic instruments.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six NiTi files (ProTaper F2 size) were evaluated for fatigue test and hardness without sterilization and after five cycles of autoclaving. These were grouped into A, B, and C (12 per group). An artificial metallic canal that simulated a curved root canal allowed the instruments to freely rotate inside it. A “C”-shaped clamp made of cast iron was used to hold the two halves of the artificial canals together. X-Smart endomotor (Dentsply, Maillefer, USA), digital stopwatch, autoclave, light mineral oil as lubricant, and so on were also used. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) test was performed as parametric test to compare different groups. To enable multiple comparisons, Duncan’s multiple range test was used as post hoc analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare Vickers microhardness between two groups. Results: The number of cycles to failure in group A, group B, and group C were tabulated and the mean values of each group were calculated and analyzed with variance test (one-way ANOVA test), and it did not show any statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the groups. In the Vickers microhardness test, results showed an increase in the microhardness of NiTi instruments of sterilized group when compared to that of unsterilized group. This was a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: This study has substantiated that autoclaving has relatively no negative impact on the fatigue failure of NiTi instruments; however, a slight increase in hardness is observed on repeated sterilization. The most common reason for failure of the files was flexural strain, which almost always corresponded to the area of maximum curvature of the simulated root canal.
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Effect of two different types of desensitizing agents on crown retention using glass ionomer cement p. 12
Mohammed A Mapkar, Amit Jagtap, Syed Ruby Syed Asadullah
Introduction: Preparation of vital teeth involves the removal of sound tooth structure, which causes opening of dentinal tubules, thereby causing displacement of the dentinal tubular fluid, leading to dentinal hypersensitivity. After cementation of crowns in such teeth, incidence of pain and hypersensitivity has been reported. An extensive use of desensitizing agents has been observed over the past few decades because of the introduction of newer agents and the increased incidence of post-cementation sensitivity. Dentin desensitizing agents are commonly used in dental practice. But their effects on crown retention have been anecdotal. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three extracted human maxillary first premolar teeth were selected for the study, which were prepared using a special assembly and divided into three groups (i.e., GC + U, GC + G, GC) to compare the effect of Gluma (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) and Ultraseal (Ultradent, USA) on crown retention using glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: It was observed that the group GC was statistically significant with the group GC + U. Conclusion: Of the two agents, Gluma may be safely used with the GIC, whereas Ultraseal is ill-suited to combine with GIC.
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Assessment of different palatal rugae patterns in gender identification p. 17
Beenakumary Thiruthara Pappu, Tharayil Anju Gopinathan, Bilahari Naduvakattu
Background: The palatal rugae number, shape, width, height, and location vary from the left side of the palate to the right side as well as from one person to another, and are unique to every individual. This is the most commonly used scientific method of forensic identification. So this study was conducted with an aim to assess the different patterns of rugae in gender identification. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 40 participants (20 men and 20 women) between the age of 20 and 35 years. Maxillary impression was carried out and cast was poured. The rugae were divided into two halves and each half was highlighted using a lead pencil under spotlight by the examiner. Rugae pattern was classified into straight, wavy, circular, curved, and unification. The shape, number, and length of rugae pattern were studied over cast by the examiner and the mean value for length and numbers was then calculated. The length of each rugae was measured using a vernier caliper in millimeters (mm). Results: The mean number of palatal rugae was more in men (6.16±0.226) compared to that in women (5.86±0.364). The mean length of palatal rugae was more in men (5.96±0.64) than that in women (4.28±0.34), and it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.02). In this study, the straight pattern was more common in both men and women (2.32±0.12 and 1.98±0.02, respectively) than other patterns. But none of the pattern shows a statistically significant association between the different patterns with gender. Conclusion: Straight rugae pattern is the most common pattern in both the groups and the mean number of palatal rugae and length is slightly more in men than that in women.
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The outcome of in vivo use of Equator attachment systems with implant-supported maxillary overdenture on patients’ satisfaction and biochemical measuring of MMP-8 p. 21
Manal R Alammari, Seham B Tayel
Background: Management of completely edentulous dental patients with compromised oral condition has become a prime concern for dental professionals. Treating patients who were edentulous with an overdenture supported by osseointegrated implants and retained by small diameter attachment system is a highly valuable rehabilitation treatment for older adults. Purpose: To evaluate patients’ satisfaction by oral health–related quality of life who received maxillary implant–assisted overdentures (MIAO) constructed with OT-Equator attachment clinically as well as biochemical measuring of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in the peri-implant soft tissue. Material and Methods: This study included 25 patients rehabilitated with MIAO with OT-Equator attachments that screwed to the abutments and mandibular removable partial denture restoring up to second premolars. Biochemical evaluation of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in peri-implant soft tissue was carried out using sandwich enzyme immunoassay–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then oral health impact profile index was used as a shortened 14-item questionnaire to evaluate the impact of oral health on the quality of life. Results: Collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in the peri-implant sulcular fluid revealed a statistically significant difference in different periods (F = 56.649). Five domains showed a statistically significant improvement at 5% level (functional limitation [P = 0.001], physical pain [P = 0.037], psychological discomfort [P = 0.007], physical disability [P = 0.010], and psychological disability [P = 0.016]) except domains regarding social disability and handicap that showed no significant improvement. Five of the seven domains of the oral health related quality of life (OHIP-14) questionnaire showed a statistically significant improvement at 5% level (functional limitation [P = 0.001], physical pain [P = 0.039], psychological discomfort [P = 0.007], physical disability [P = 0.010], psychological disability P = 0.017]). Conclusion: Results showed that the patients with MIAO were satisfied with their oral health–related quality of life. Expectable and encouraging treatment outcomes among elderly patients in severe situations with bone deficiency in the maxilla can be achieved with OT-Equator attachments. Biochemical analysis of collagenase-2 (MMP-8) was a potential host marker for the condition of peri-implant tissue as it could prevent failure of dental implant.
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Effect of blood contamination on the push-out bond strength of four endodontic root perforation repair materials: An in vitro study p. 27
Angel Bhagya, Krishnaprasad Shetty, Sarvepalli Venkata Satish, Ashwini M Patil, Basvana Gowda, Khondakar Mohsin Reza
Aim: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of four endodontic root perforation repair materials on blood contamination. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 80 single-rooted human canine teeth were used. The crowns of all teeth were removed, and the mid-root dentin was sectioned horizontally into slices with a thickness of 1.0mm by using a diamond disk. In 40 samples, a 27-gauge syringe was used to inject blood into the perforated area, which was taken from the patient. Biodentine (Septodont, Pennsylvania, USA) liquid from a single dose container was emptied into a powder-containing capsule and mixed 30 seconds, was mixed in 10 samples; glass ionomer cement (GIC) (GC Fuji IX; GC, Tokyo, Japan) was mixed in 10 samples; ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (DENTSPLY, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, Oklahoma), hand mixed with sterile water at a powder to liquid ratio of 3:1 in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, was mixed in 10 samples; and Cavit (ESPE Dental Products, Ohio, USA) was mixed in 10 samples and placed in perforation area. In the remaining 40 samples, normal saline irrigation was performed before restoring 10 samples with Biodentine, 10 samples with GIC, 10 samples with ProRoot MTA, and 10 samples with Cavit. The samples were carried in wet gauze piece and placed in a closed container in an incubator at 370°C and 100% humidity until push-out bond strength was carried out. Results: The result was statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc tests. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Conclusion: Push-out bond strength of Biodentine was higher than that of ProRoot MTA, GIC, and Cavit on blood contamination.
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The mystery of handprints—Dermatoglyphics and dentistry p. 31
Mohil Asnani, Ashu Soni, Prachi Asnani, Ekta Mistry, Nimesh Patel, Anshu Gupta
Dermatoglyphics refers to epidermal ridges present on the palm, sole, fingers, and toes. Over the past 150 years, dermatoglyphics has been a powerful tool in understanding the basic questions in biology and genetics. Its analysis is now beginning to prove useful in the field of dentistry. Each and every individual has unique fingerprints, even twins. These fingerprints remain the same lifelong from their development unless they are damaged by dermal injuries.
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Granulomatous diseases: An updated review p. 35
Amirneni Sailaja Choudary, Prathiba Prabhakar
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by genetically heterogeneous conditions, characterized by recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections, and granuloma formation. The genetic defect in any of the five subunits of the nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide phosphatase hydrogenases oxidase complex is responsible for the respiratory burst in phagocytes. Patients with CGD are at an increased risk of life-threatening infections with catalase-positive bacteria and fungi and inflammatory complications such as CGD colitis. The implementation of routine antimicrobial prophylaxis and the advent of azole antifungals have considerably improved their overall survival, life expectancy remains decreased compared to that of the general population.
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Magnification-aided endodontic treatment of mandibular first molar with three distal canals p. 40
Neha Kapoor, Anjali Miglani, Amit Gandhi, Rakhi Gupta, Monika Ahlawat, Pankhuri Garg
The main goal of root canal treatment is thorough debridement of the root canal and filling it three-dimensionally. Failure to negotiate all the canals may lead to an unsuccessful treatment outcome. So it becomes necessary for the clinician to have a meticulous knowledge of aberrations in the root canal system. The majority of mandibular first molars are two rooted with one distal and two mesial canals. Variations such as three mesial and three distal root canals individually or in combination have been reported. Such variations can be quite challenging for the clinician, but with the aid of magnification, proper visualization and detection of extra root canals is possible. This case report depicts a rare occurrence of three canals in the distal root of mandibular first molar and its endodontic management with surgical loupes. An extensive understanding of the most common root canal configuration and its variations is a prerequisite to achieve long-term success of the endodontic treatment. Use of magnification such as surgical loupes aids in the visualization and detection of extra canals and increases the percentage of success of endodontic treatment.
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Non-syndromic supernumerary premolars, a literature review and a report of two cases p. 44
Naji Z Arandi
A parapremolar is a supernumerary tooth that is located in the premolar region. They appear more frequently in the mandible than in the maxilla. Several theories have been suggested to explain this phenomenon, with the “dental lamina hyperactivity theory” found to be the most accepted. Supernumerary premolars are usually impacted. They can be associated with complications or stay asymptomatic. Radiographic identification is very important for the detection of asymptomatic impacted parapremolars. Treatment involves the removal of the supernumerary tooth because of the complications that its presence may cause or to keep it under observational management. This article presents a review of supernumerary premolars and reports two cases of patients who attended the dental clinics of the Faculty of Dentistry at the Arab American University in Palestine.
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