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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2018
Volume 6 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 49-92

Online since Tuesday, May 14, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Impact of different laser treatments on push-out strength of post luted with resin cement: An in vitro study p. 49
Sylvana Achammada, Shamsheer Thayyil, Joseph Joy, Namitha Divakar, Saurabh Sathe, Sreehari Sathyanathan
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_14_18  
Background: The interface of the post and resin cement is a site of likely failure of adhesion. This interface adhesion of the post surface can be improved through different pretreatments such as laser. So the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation on the push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and resin cement. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups, Group 1 (control group), Group 2 (Er,Cr:YSGG), and Group 3 (Er:YAG). FRC post cementation was performed with Etch-and-rinse resin cement. Push-out strength was tested using a universal materials tester. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Services (SPSS), version 20. Results: Highest push-out bond strength was observed in Group 3 (i.e., Er:YAG, 18.1±0.4MPa) followed by Group 2 (i.e., Er,Cr:YSGG, 17.6±0.9MPa) and least strength was seen in Group 1 (i.e., control, 14.7±1.5MPa). A statistically significant difference was observed when the groups were compared to the untreated or control group (P = 0.000). Conclusion: It was concluded that laser treatment, that is, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG, significantly improved the push-out bond strength of FRC posts luted with resin cement.
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Effects of disinfection procedures on surface roughness of hard chairside relining and denture base acrylic resins: An in vitro study p. 54
Chandrasinh Rajput, Keval Shah, Hiren Rana, Bhagyashree Dave, Yashpreet S Bhatia, Rutu Shah
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_2_19  
Objective: There is a concern that disinfection procedures may adversely affect the surface roughness of relining and acrylic denture base resins. Hence, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical and microwave disinfection on surface roughness of commonly used hard chairside relining (Ufi Gel hard and Kooliner) and acrylic denture base resins (Lucitone 199). Materials and Methods: Powder (polymer) and liquid (monomer) were mixed according to manufacturer’s instructions to prepare 20 specimens from each material. Specimens were divided into two control and two test groups. Surface roughness measurements (Ra, μm) were made after polymerization and water immersion (control groups) and after chemical and microwave disinfection (test groups). Measurements of roughness were statistically analyzed. Result: When compared with control groups, the surface roughness of all three types of materials evaluated were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) by both chemical disinfection (Ufi Gel hard, from 0.16 to 0.28 μm; Kooliner, from 0.18 to 0.29 μm; and Lucitone 199, from 0.14 to 0.26 μm) and microwave disinfection (Ufi Gel hard, from 0.16 to 0.26 μm; Kooliner, from 0.18 to 0.25 μm; and Lucitone 199, from 0.14 to 0.23 μm). For all three types of materials, specimens disinfected in microwave (Ufi Gel hard, 0.26 μm; Kooliner, 0.25 μm; and Lucitone 199, 0.23 μm) showed lower mean surface roughness values than those that were chemically disinfected (Ufi Gel hard, 0.28 μm; Kooliner, 0.29 μm; and Lucitone 199, 0.26 μm) but the difference was significant only for Kooliner (P = 0.015). Conclusion: The result of this in vitro study favored the use of microwave disinfection method as it had less adverse effect on surface roughness of materials compared to that of chemical disinfection.
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Assessment of knowledge and attitude of school teachers regarding emergency management of dental trauma in Udaipur city, India: A cross-sectional study p. 58
Mukesh Panwar, Dinesh Rao, Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar, Sunil Panwar
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_6_19  
Background: Dental trauma is common in childhood. The home, school, and playground are the most common places where one can find a noticeable risk of traumatic injuries. Teachers are usually in proximity to children and are often called upon to provide initial care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the school teacher’s knowledge and attitude toward emergency management of dental trauma (EMDT). Material and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 school teachers from 24 selected schools in a city by simple cluster sampling. A closed-ended, structured, modified questionnaire was used for the survey. Data obtained from 400 completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The study achieved around 88% response rate. Majority of school teachers accepted that their knowledge of EMDT was not enough. Maximum of teachers wanted future education in EMDT. Very few teachers reported that they were unable to provide proper action when needed in case of dental trauma. Conclusion: The present study revealed considerably low knowledge and attitude of school teachers regarding EMDT.
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Effect of two desensitizing agents on crown retention using zinc phosphate cement p. 64
Mohammed A Mapkar, Amit Jagtap, Syed Ruby Syed Asadullah
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_7_18  
Introduction: Preparation of vital teeth involves removal of sound tooth structure, which causes opening of dentinal tubules, thereby causing displacement of the dentinal tubular fluid, leading to dentinal hypersensitivity. After cementation of crowns in such teeth, incidence of pain and hypersensitivity has been reported. An extensive use of desensitizing agents has been observed over the past few decades because of the introduction of newer agents and the increased incidence of post-cementation sensitivity. Dentin desensitizing agents are commonly used in dental practice. But their effects on crown retention have been anecdotal. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three extracted human maxillary first premolar teeth were selected for the study, which were prepared using a special assembly and divided into three groups (i.e., ZP + U, ZP + G, and ZP) to compare the effect of Gluma (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) and Ultraseal (Ultradent, USA) on crown retention using zinc phosphate cement. Results: It was seen that the group ZP + G was statistically significant with groups ZP and ZP + U. However, no such difference was observed between ZP and ZP + U. Conclusion: Both the agents can be used and prove effective when used with zinc phosphate cement. However, the major mode of failure was adhesive in nature with the cement being retained on both the crown and the tooth structure.
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Buccal mucosal alterations: A mirror of diabetes mellitus p. 69
Mitali Dhebri, Sanskriti Gandhi, Rushda B Kazi, Vaibhavi Gore, Prachi Baldawa, Ajit Koshy
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_13_18  
Background: Oral exfoliative cytology can be used as a simple chairside investigation for microscopic study of Diabetes Mellitus. Exfoliative cytology gives an insight to the cellular changes occurring in the buccal mucosa of diabetic individuals, serving as a mirror for diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using exfoliative cytology and its correlation with glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Materials and Methods: Study group consisted of 100 patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Approval from the ethics committee was taken. HbA1c was measured. Buccal smears were collected using exfoliative cytology and were subjected to Rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Smears were scrutinized under Leica Research Microscope. Individuals who smoke, are dependent on alcohol, or have malignancy were excluded to eliminate its effect on cellular shape and morphology. Statistical Analysis: Spearman Rank Correlation. Results: A statistically significant increase in cytological changes are seen in the buccal mucosa as the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin increase. Exfoliated buccal cells revealed micronuclei, enlarged nuclear area, and increased inflammatory cells. Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained, a strong correlation exists between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and buccal mucosal alterations. We are encouraged to venture with a suggestion that exfoliative cytology can be significant as a chairside adjunctive diagnostic tool in the detection of Diabetes Mellitus, apart from regular standard tests.
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Effectiveness of a training program related to infection control and waste management practices in a dental college: A quasi-experimental study p. 73
Mayank Das, L Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja Sinha
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_8_19  
Introduction: Biomedical waste is an important public health concern regarding waste management and diseases related to this issue in developing countries. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of training related to infection control and waste management among undergraduate students in a dental institution. Materials And Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study carried out in two dental colleges, including 100 final year students of both the colleges. In group A (experimental group) and group B (control group) at the baseline, a questionnaire and a lecture were given. Follow-up and assessment were conducted at 1 and 3 months, and at the end of 6 months. Collected data were analyzed, and independent t test and one-way analysis of variance test were used for the analysis. Result: Knowledge and attitude scores in the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase. Practice scores in the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in scores from 1 to 3 months and from 3 to 6 months. Conclusion: The training program was found to be effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control and waste management among undergraduate dental students.
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Assessment of orthodontic brackets for the shear bond strength bonded with and without primer: In vitro study p. 78
Ayub Khan, Abdul Mueez, Mohsin Reza, Mohammed A Rasheed, Sweta Kattimani
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_15_18  
Introduction: The elementary function of primer is to boost the efficiency of the final bond. Secondarily, they are also pronounced to protect the enamel from the consequent demineralization by the acid etching and to reduce marginal leakage. The use of primer adds a step in the bonding procedure, which necessitates increased chair time risk of moisture contamination and an increased procedural cost. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted premolars were procured and divided into two groups, that is, a conventional adhesive system with and without primer. Later, acrylic blocks were made and the teeth were bonded and then the shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine. Results: Group I (with primer) has the bond strength value of 10.22±2.4MPa and Group II (without primer) has the bond strength value of 9.11±1.596MPa. Conclusion: A conventional adhesive system with and without primer showed SBS in the range satisfactory for clinical usage.
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Antibacterial efficacy of herbal alternatives and 2% chlorhexidine on biofilm: An in vitro study p. 81
Neelam Chandwani, Pooja P Bopche, Neetu Maurya, Aastha Ranka, Abhishek Pal, Tanvi Fuladi
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_1_19  
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of natural agents for disinfection of root canal system, such as the effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), thyme oil, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on multispecies biofilm of most commonly found pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis in the field of endodontics. Materials and Methods: To visualize the antibacterial effectualness of the methanolic extracts of the medicated plants and CHX, an in vitro dentin model was used. A polymicrobic biofilm was grown on human extracted teeth for 21 days. Microbial load in the form of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) after the antimicrobial treatment was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Results: Plant extracts showed remarkable antibacterial efficacy along with 2% CHX compared with that of control. A significant statistical difference was found with 2% CHX. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. indica, thyme oil, and CHX has shown considerable antimicrobial activity against polymicrobic dentinal biofilm of S. mutans and E. faecalis.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Assessment of determinants in successful regeneration of class II furcation involvement by guided tissue regeneration: An overview p. 85
Sunil Kumar Vaddamanu, Ravi Kadur Sundar Raj, Shankar T Gokhale, Mukhatar A Javali, Mohasin A Khader, N Raghavendra Reddy
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_9_18  
The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate lost periodontal tissues caused by periodontal diseases. Furcation involvement in multi-rooted teeth caused by chronic periodontitis is a difficult task in achieving the periodontal regeneration. Various treatment modalities are available, among them, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) placement has shown promising results. Various prognostic factors such as anatomical and systemic factors have to be considered for the final outcome of periodontal therapy while placing membrane. The aim of the paper was to evaluate various determinants in class II furcation defect by GTR procedure.
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Role of maxillofacial radiology in expediting forensic odontology p. 89
Shruti Sinha, Charu Singh, Sunira Chandra, Siddharth Kumar Singh, Palkin Mehta
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_5_19  
In the last few decades, forensic odontology has developed as a separate specialty that deals with examination of dental evidences, their proper evaluation, and correct management for law proceedings in the interest of justice. It is mainly concerned with person identification, age estimation, gender determination, human abuse, bite mark investigation, and DNA analysis, in incidents of natural disasters and medico-legal cases. Maxillofacial radiology is a promising tool in forensic science as radiographs capture the exact anatomic and skeletal features that can then be matched with the original records for person identification and can also provide minute forms of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs in cases of mass disasters. The use of imaging is increasing day by day as it is efficient, quick, and comparatively easy, less expensive as compared to available DNA technologies, and can also be applied to both living individuals as well as dead. The present article aims to discuss the various trends that have evolved in forensic radiology and to appraise their contribution in the field of forensic odontology.
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