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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-29

Online since Wednesday, June 26, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

A cytological study of leukoplakia in oral cavity at Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Dhanbad p. 1
Animesh K Shivam, Farrukh Azam, Heena Sadiq
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_16_19  
Objectives: To assess the role of cytology in leukoplakia and its etiology in patients attending outpatient department at Patliputra Medical College and Hospital (PMCH), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. Materials and Methods: The diagnosis of leukoplakia was based on clinical examination and cytological smear. Results: The total number of patients affected by leukoplakia in this time duration was 268. Of these, 238 (86%) were male, whereas 30 were female (14%). Greatest proportion of patients with leukoplakia had a habit of consuming khaini and tobacco in other forms. Mild form of leukoplakia was commonly seen. Conclusion: This study reveals that the incidence rate of leukoplakia in patients visiting PMCH, Dhanbad, was 1%. Males were more affected than females. Use of cytology in mass screening programs helped in identifying leukoplakias with parakeratotic patterns and leading to those cases, which need careful long-term follow-up.
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Compressive strength of three different restorative materials (in vitro study) p. 4
Mohammad Yaman Seirawan, Mazen Doumani, Mohammad Kinan Seirawan, Adnan Habib, Mazen Dayoub
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_13_19  
Objective: This study aimed to compare the compressive strength of zinc-reinforced glass ionomer (ZRGI) restorations with high-viscosity glass ionomer (HVGI) cement and posterior composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four cylindrical blocks (6 ± 0.1mm height, 4 ± 0.1mm diameter) were prepared from the three studied materials using a prefabricated Teflon mold and were divided into three equal groups. The compressive strength test was performed by Instron mechanical test system model 1195. Statistical analysis was performed depending on analysis of variance and least significant difference tests at 95% significance level. Results: Posterior composite restoration showed the highest compressive strength (239MPa), whereas there was no difference between ZRGI and HVGI (154MPa and 151MPa, respectively). Conclusions: Although the compressive strength of ZRGI was close to that of HVGI, this fact does not give ZRGI any preference, but it is possible that improvements can be reflected. Other properties can be studied later. We recommend not to rely on ZRGI as permanent restoration instead of posterior composite resin restoration.
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Constraints among patients while opting dental implant as a treatment option p. 8
Manish Sinha, Manisha Agarwal, Sanket S Shah, Siddharth Desai, Ankur Desai, Harshal Champaneri
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_11_19  
Aim: To assess the constraints among patients while opting dental implant as a treatment option among the randomly selected sample of dental patients attending the outpatient department (OPD) of Vaidik Dental College and Research Centre, Daman, India. Materials and Methods: Information on demographic characteristics, knowledge about implant as an option for missing tooth replacement, source of information, and knowledge about other options of tooth replacement were obtained from patients visiting various dental OPDs of hospital and private dental clinics using nationwide self-explanatory survey. Results: Among the 1000 responses retrieved, 27% of the respondents felt moderately well informed about the dental implant treatment. Only 9% of the respondents had dental implant treatment before and 17% felt well informed about the different alternatives of replacing missing teeth. Dentists were the main source of information regarding dental implant treatment modality followed by friends and electronic media. A total of 55.6% of the respondents felt implant to be as good as own teeth in function, whereas high cost was the major limiting factor for implant treatment. Conclusion: A total of 56% of Daman population were aware of dental implant as an alternative for replacing missing teeth. Necessary efforts and measures should be made to raise the awareness of dental implant treatment in the country.
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A clinical assessment of postoperative complications of mandibular fractures using Mandibular Injury Severity Score at K. R. Hospital, Mysore p. 12
S Sandeep Tejaswi, TS Subash
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_10_19  
Introduction: Among the facial injury, the mandibular fractures represent a substantial portion of surgical case load to trauma centers. Management of this common injury varies greatly and is still driven by expert opinion or empirical data. Scientific study of mandible fractures and their treatment has been hampered by the lack of an injury cataloging system that allows a disciplined, systematic aggregation of collective clinical experiences. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Dentistry, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Karnataka, Mysore, India. Subjects selected were above 16 years of age with isolated mandibular fractures who were eligible to undergo treatment. A total of 50 patients were divided into two groups, closed and open reduction, each having 25 subjects. Each individual case was evaluated for FLOSID components separately. Mandibular Injury Severity Score (MISS) was assigned based on summated results of FLOSID components. Obtained complication scores and MISS were correlated statistically using Spearman’s correlation coefficient among the different groups. Results: On comparison between the two groups, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), statistical analysis using Mann–Whitney U test showed mean and median values for the ORIF group as 6.52 and 5 (3–11), respectively whereas mean (SD) and median values in the MMF group as 5.52 (3.31) and 5 (3–3.5), respectively. There was proportional increase in both MISS and complication score. The aforementioned analysis indicates that MISS is a predictable parameter in assessing postoperative complications of mandibular fracture and also in predicting the complication outcomes in clinical situation. Conclusion: This study concludes that the higher the MISS, the higher the rate of complications in groups treated with ORIF. MISS however did not correlate much with groups treated using closed method. FLOSID taxonomy predicted the exact details of cases and helped arriving at MISSs, of individual cases with complication score to help the clinician to arrive and predict postoperative events, and to adopt proper treatment plan for individual cases, to minimize the complication score as low as possible, for the benefit patients with Maxillofacial trauma.
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Comparative evaluation of surface roughness of novel resin composite Cention N with Filtek Z350 XT: In vitro study p. 15
Amith Setty, Jyothi Nagesh, Jayashankara Chatra Marigowda, Anil kumar Shivanna, Sharath Kumar Paluvary, Girish Sooranagenahalli Ashwathappa
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_9_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the surface roughness of Cention N and Filtek Z350 XT resin composite. Null Hypothesis: There is no difference observed in surface roughness between the Cention N and Filtek Z350 XT resin composite. Introduction: The use of resin composites in restorative dentistry has markedly increased in recent years due to increased demand for esthetics. The advent of novel fluoride-releasing resin composite Cention N has brought enormous benefits. Finishing and polishing of composite resin restorations are essential steps in restorative dentistry. However, there are no studies available in literatures regarding the effective use of Soflex finishing and polishing with Cention N. Hence, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the surface roughness of novel resin composite Cention N and compare with Filtek Z350 XT resin composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four specimens were prepared in Teflon plastic mold of 8-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness, and were divided into group 1 (Filtek Z350 XT [n = 32]) and group 2 (Cention N [n = 32]). They were further subdivided into group 1A (Matrix finish [n = 16]) and 1B (Soflex [n = 16]), and group 2A (Matrix finish [n = 16]) and 2B (Soflex [n = 16]). Surface roughness was measured using surface profilometer. Results: When comparing the mean values and standard deviations of surface roughness of four groups using one-way ANOVA, it was found that there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in mean surface roughness between the four groups. Conclusion: All the groups presented the values that are below or approximating baseline value for bacterial or plaque retention.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Hemophilic patients and orthodontics p. 18
Shamsuddin V Shaheen, Kader M A Mohammed, Mathew B Vinod, Mohamed Ali B Ahmed, Kuruniyan S Mohamed, Kunjappu J Jimly
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_19_19  
The most common congenital bleeding disorder is hemophilia. It is a pathology inherited and caused by a defective or an absence of the coagulation factors so that hemophiliacs cannot form an efficient clot. These patients have been treated with fear in the dental profession without having achieved the goals and ideals most appropriate according to the requirements of each case, which is demonstrated in the little existing literature available. However, they are currently treated as healthy orthodontic patients thanks to the advances in orthodontics. The review emphasis is on the importance of interconsultation with the hematologist, prevention, and oral hygiene and that of the beneficial effect of orthodontic.
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Recent advancements in glass ionomer materials with introduction of nanotechnology: A review p. 21
Ghada AlOtaibi
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_17_19  
In dentistry, there is a continuous need of change in techniques and materials, according to the change in demand from patients’ professional perceptions and with advancement in technology. Both components of glass ionomer cements (GICs) inhibit wide chemical diversity, which provide potential of progress in GICs. Therefore, the main aim of this article was to study the various advancements in GICs with the introduction of nanotechnology in GIC. Various modifications in GICs were carried out. This article is an attempt to overview different advances in glass ionomer such as compomers, condensable/self-hardening GIC, low viscosity/flowable GIC, fiber-reinforced GIC, chlorhexidine-impregnated GIC, proline-containing GIC, nano-bioceramic-modified GIC, and calcium aluminate GIC. Nanotechnology is introduced in conventional GIC and resin-modified GIC to improve the mechanical properties of GIC. It has been concluded that large number of modifications were carried out with GIC, and the introduction of nanotechnology had improved the general properties of GIC. Nano-resin-modified GICs (nano-RMGICs) do not possess any substantial advantage or disadvantage, in terms of surface mechanical properties, compared to conventional restorative materials.
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Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing in prosthodontics: The trendsetter p. 24
Abdul Basith, Nandakishore Bhojaraju, Miriam Mathew, Anil K Subash, Abhinav Mohan, Fares Aboobacker
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_14_19  
The advancement in digital technologies results in the betterment of final outcome. The digital technologies had also been into the field of dentistry. Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in dentistry was introduced in 1971. Dental CAD/CAM systems are used not only in crowns and bridges but also in removable prostheses, implants, and stents.
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CASE REPORT Top

Mesiodens and its complication in anterior maxilla: A case report p. 27
Ankita Dixit, Gagandeep S Randhawa, Rajbir K Randhawa, Ami Rawal, Rahul Khubchandani, Maulik Rao
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_12_19  
Supernumerary teeth can present in various forms and in any region of the mandible or maxilla, but they are more common in anterior maxilla and when they are present between the roots of central incisors, they are termed as “mesiodens.” These teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. When it remains embedded, it may cause disturbance to the developing teeth. Early detection is an important key to avoid development of any complications. This report presents a case of a 12-year-old girl with impacted supernumerary tooth in the maxillary anterior region between the roots of right central and lateral incisor, resulting in the rotation of central incisor, leading to unaesthetic appearance. To prevent further complications, immediate surgical removal of the supernumerary was recommended.
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