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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 30-60

Online since Thursday, August 29, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

A clinical comparative study of four interocclusal recording materials p. 30
Mohammad Kinan Seirawan, Sham Alobeissi, Mazen Doumani, Bilal D Mourshed, Mohammad Yaman Seirawan, Khaled Al-Hallak, Eyad Alshaarani
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_23_19  
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four interocclusal recording materials and its effect on the relationship of the casts. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 25 partially edentulous patients with upper complete natural dentition and lower bilateral free end edentulous areas. Ten pairs of reference points were drawn on the lateral surfaces of the base of each cast pair when the casts were manually articulated in maximum intercuspation position. The vertical distances between each pair of reference points were measured by a scanner and computerized software. Four interocclusal records were made for each patient by four interocclusal recording materials: zinc oxide eugenol paste, polyvinyl siloxane, Aluwax, and Baseplate wax. The casts were fixed on each record, and the vertical separation, anteroposterior, and lateral displacement were measured and calculated. Results: Polyvinyl siloxane was significantly more likely to lead to successful articulation than other interocclusal recording materials. Aluwax caused the highest vertical separation whereas Baseplate wax caused the greatest lateral displacement between the casts. Conclusion: Polyvinyl siloxane interocclusal recording material was the most accurate whereas Waxes were the least reliable materials.
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Efficacy of Carica papaya seed extract on periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study p. 35
Vivekananda Marenahally Rangaraju, Shamna Mousin, Harsha M Babu, Shivaprasad Dasappa
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_28_19  
Background and Objectives: Human breath is composed of highly complex substances with numerous variable odors, which can generate unpleasant situations such as halitosis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of Carica papaya seed extract on clinical parameters, such as gingival index (GI), papillary bleeding index (PBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and on oral malodor causing organisms, respectively. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with oral malodor score ≥3 were selected for the study. Subjects were divided into three groups: Group A––periodontally healthy subjects, Group B––gingivitis subjects, and Group C––periodontitis subjects with PPD ≥5mm. Ultrasonic scaling was performed for all the patients at the baseline and mouthwash was prescribed for 14 days. The clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), GI, PBI, and PPD were recorded at baseline and 14th day (T14). Benzoyl-dl-arginine-B-naphthylamide (BANA) test and breath checker readings were taken at 0, 14th, and 21st days. Results: At T14, GI, PBI, PPD, malodor scores, and BANA test results showed a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.001) in all the three groups. Regarding the outcome variables, no significant intergroup differences were observed. Conclusion: Herbal mouthwash of dried seeds of C. papaya as an adjunct to scaling provides more favorable approach in the treatment of plaque-induced gingivitis, periodontitis and also oral malodor in all the groups. However, long-term studies with more number of subjects are required to evaluate the efficacy of this herbal mouthwash as an adjunct to scaling.
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Comparison of bond strength and fracture toughness of metal–ceramic restorations fabricated by conventional lost-wax technique and selective laser sintering p. 43
Rajneesh Kumar, Rupali Pathak, Priya Singh, Sonali Mahajan, Devesh Tiwari, Prachi Deval
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_26_19  
Introduction: Porcelain fused to metal is the most common restoration. The success of the prosthesis greatly depends on the mechanical bonding between the metal alloy and the ceramic. Newer techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and computer-aided design are fast replacing the lost-wax technique due to ease of fabrication. This study was carried out to ascertain the best possible technique to ensure success. Materials and Methods: Forty strips of cobalt–chromium (Co–Cr) metal were fabricated and divided into two groups (lost-wax technique vs. SLS technology), which were then bonded with ceramic and compared for bond strength and fracture toughness. Results: SLS group showed higher bond strength than conventional lost-wax technique (CAST) group but lowered fracture toughness. This difference was also found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The lost-wax technique is a time-tested method that needs not be abandoned until successful evolution of emerging technologies is firmly established.
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A comparative assessment of the changes in quality of life of children with severe early-childhood caries following comprehensive oral rehabilitation treated with or without General Anesthesia p. 46
Dempsy Chengappa, Akshai Kannan, Parul Jain, Tarnum Ghavri
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_24_19  
Background: The negative impact of early-childhood caries (ECC) on Oral-Health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is already known. When total oral rehabilitation is impossible with nonpharmacological management techniques, dental treatment under conscious sedation/general anesthesia (GA) is considered. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the changes in quality of life of children with severe ECC after treatment with or without GA. Materials and Methods: Study group included 22 children with severe ECC who were treated by pedodontic team of our institute with or without GA. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions on OHRQoL were administered to the parents based on a three point Likert scale. Results: Statistical analysis using the chi-squared (χ2) test showed significant association with relation to diet with children in the non-GA group. There was also a significant association in relation to chewing with children in the non-GA group. Conclusion: Dental rehabilitation under GA should be the modality to treat children not manageable with nonpharmacologic methods. The non-GA management of children could be an effective method to provide treatment and reduce costs and anxiety to the parents.
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Association between smoking and dental caries among people of Dhanbad district, Jharkhand, India p. 50
Animesh K Shivam, Farrukh Azam
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_27_19  
Introduction: Smoking as a public health problem harms one’s general and oral well-being, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the association between dental caries and smokers (current and past) with nonsmokers among people of Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 1364 (448 smokers, 440 past smokers, and 446 nonsmokers), and the patients were divided among three age groups (35–44, 45–60, and >60 years). Results: It was revealed that the highest mean decayed missing and filled teeth was seen among smokers (3.65 ± 5.78) followed by past smokers (3.01 ± 2.66) and nonsmokers (3.01 ± 2.66). Conclusion: Efforts are required by clinicians to educate people about the ill-effects of tobacco and provide tobacco cessation counseling to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Adverse effects of tooth bleaching: A review p. 53
Fatima L AlOtaibi
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_22_19  
Current bleaching methods mainly use hydrogen peroxide as the active agents. Tooth whitening is achieved either by in-office bleaching technique or self-applied or home bleach method. This review focused mainly on the adverse outcomes of tooth bleaching such as cervical root resorption, crown fracture, tooth sensitivity, mucosal reaction, and enamel surface alterations produced during the treatment and the management of vital and non-vital teeth-bleaching procedures. Cervical root resorption is one of the unwanted effects observed with the internal bleaching, especially seen with thermo-catalytic procedures. There is a possibility of crown fracture after intracoronal bleaching most likely due to the extensive removal of the intracoronal dentin. One of the common side effects of external tooth bleaching is the tooth sensitivity that ranged between 15% and 65%. Another important adverse effect of high concentration of hydrogen peroxide bleaching is the mucosal irritation ranged between 30% and 35%. Morphologic changes of enamel were also observed with the use of higher concentration of bleaching agents. In view of this review, it is highly desirable to take all the necessary precautions and considerations while performing tooth-bleaching treatment.
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Microbial investigations of fungal infections: An overview p. 56
Frankantony P Britto, Xavier Pradeep Dmello.A, Akhil S Shetty, Harini C Thakkilipati, Ravichandra Udupa, Varsha R Shetty J
DOI:10.4103/INJO.INJO_18_19  
The incidence of fungal infections has increased considerably in recent years. Fungal infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. New diagnostic approaches have been developed based on non-culture-based methods, which may allow early diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections. Laboratory procedures in diagnostic mycology are directed mainly toward the direct demonstration of the pathogenic fungi in clinical specimens by microscopy along with successful isolation of pathogenic fungi by using various culture techniques. They also help in the prediction of possible therapeutic outcome by determining antifungal susceptibility and can also be used in epidemiological studies by tracing the source of infection. An active interaction between the clinician, microbiologist, and pathologist facilitates the exact diagnosis and accurate interpretation of culture and histopathological results. This article focuses on specific conventional and rapid advanced techniques concerning a practical approach to the lab investigations in fungal infections.
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