• Users Online: 358
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 20-22

Awareness about periodontal health among patients with fixed orthodontic appliance


1 Department of Dentistry, Patliputra Medical College & Hospital (PMCH), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India
2 Department of Periodontology & Oral Implantology, Awadh Dental College & Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India
3 Department of Orthodontics, Mithila Minority Dental College & Hospital, Darbhanga, Bihar, India

Date of Submission15-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance18-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication27-Jun-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ujjwal Priyadarsi
K5-14, Jhelum Apartment, Siroman Nagar, Near MGM Medical College, Dimna, Jamshedpur 831012, Jharkhand.
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INJO.INJO_21_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: During the fixed orthodontic appliance treatment, patient’s knowledge, motivation, cooperation, and attitude toward treatment are key factors of oral hygiene maintenance. Very little is known about periodontal health awareness among orthodontic patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to report on periodontal health awareness among orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 orthodontics patients were included in this study. Subjects who were currently wearing upper and lower fixed orthodontic appliances were included in the study. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire (demographic characteristics, subjects’ awareness toward their periodontal health). Results: The majority of subjects were in the moderate level of awareness group (52%). Conclusion: There is a need for improvement of teeth brushing during fixed orthodontic treatment and the importance of following oral health advice given by the dentist.

Keywords: Awareness, fixed orthodontic appliance, orthodontia, periodontal health


How to cite this article:
Priyadarsi U, Alam MS, Hussain A, Azam F, Lal H, Parveen G. Awareness about periodontal health among patients with fixed orthodontic appliance. Int J Oral Care Res 2020;8:20-2

How to cite this URL:
Priyadarsi U, Alam MS, Hussain A, Azam F, Lal H, Parveen G. Awareness about periodontal health among patients with fixed orthodontic appliance. Int J Oral Care Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jul 3];8:20-2. Available from: http://www.ijocr.org/text.asp?2020/8/2/20/288063




  Introduction Top


Research has showed a significant increase in the quantity of dental plaque and the occurrence of gingivitis in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.[1] For this reason, special efforts are required for adequate oral hygiene during fixed appliance treatment as its presence makes tooth cleaning more difficult.[2] During the fixed orthodontic appliance treatment, patient’s knowledge, motivation, cooperation, and attitude toward treatment are key factors of oral hygiene maintenance.[3] Poor maintenance of oral hygiene may be due to lack of knowledge or negligence by patients themselves.[4] Various reports have shown that orthodontic patients’ knowledge on their gingival health was poor.[5] Despite receiving oral health education, many individuals fail to follow these instructions. Also, majority had lack of knowledge on the maintenance of oral hygiene.[6] Before the beginning of orthodontic treatment, patients should be instructed about the importance of regular oral hygiene maintenance.[7],[8] Very little is known about periodontal health awareness among orthodontic patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to report on the periodontal health awareness among orthodontic patients with fixed appliances.


  Materials and Methods Top


A structured questionnaire was administered to 1000 orthodontic patients recruited from orthodontic clinics in Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. Currently treated orthodontic patients at the orthodontic clinics during the study period who agreed to participate in the study were included. The patients received both verbal and written information about the study. All subjects were of similar economic and social background. A total of 1000 orthodontics patients (600 males and 400 females) filled the questionnaire completely and were included in this study. The mean age was 18 ± 5.0 years. Subjects were currently wearing upper and lower fixed orthodontic appliances for an average duration of 12.89 ± 6.25 months. All subjects had healthy periodontium before the start of orthodontic treatment and were instructed for the need to properly clean the teeth after placing the appliance. A self-administrated structured questionnaire, which was applied in the previous study,[9] was used as the instrument for data collection [Figure 1]. The questionnaire was self-administered to the participants in the waiting areas of orthodontic clinics across Dhanbad. It contained a series of questions in relation to demographic characteristics of the subject’s age, gender, duration of fixed orthodontic treatment, and the patient’s current oral health behavior (frequency and duration of tooth brushing, auxiliary aids, and dental visits). Ten questions related to subject’s awareness toward periodontal health were scored as 0 if the answer was “I don’t know” and as 1 if the answer was “yes” or “no.” Subsequently, subjects were allocated into a high level of awareness (average score 8–10), a moderate level of awareness (5–7), a low level of awareness (average score 1–4), and no awareness (score 0) groups.
Figure1: Level of periodontal awareness among orthodontic subjects

Click here to view


Statistical analysis

Data were entered into a personal computer and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois). The level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.


  Results Top


The majority of subjects were in the moderate level of awareness group (52%). Orthodontic patients’ awareness toward their periodontal health during fixed orthodontic treatment showed a significant association with attitude scores (R2 = 0.132; P = 0.023).


  Discussion Top


Generally, public awareness of gum disease and particularly the role of dental plaque in relation to periodontal disease are poor, presumably due to inadequate health education concerning these conditions.[10],[11],[12],[13] Most of the orthodontic patients in this study had a high level of awareness of their periodontal health. They were aware of having dental calculus and dental stain, but not aware of having dental plaque. This may be due to the easy identification of stains and calculus on teeth. The identification of dental plaque is more difficult, as they do not know how it looks. Azodo and Umoh[14] assessed knowledge of oral health among Nigerian patients with fixed orthodontic appliances and reported that 93.5% of the subjects showed good oral health awareness. Baheti and Toshniwal[5] showed that nearly 50% of the Indian patients were unaware of periodontal health. In this study, similar periodontal health awareness among boys and girls was recorded. This result was in contrast to the results of the previous study,[15] where females showed a higher oral health knowledge than males. In this study, the majority of orthodontic patients had a negative attitude toward fixed orthodontic treatment in respect of periodontal health. This was in agreement with Baheti and Toshniwal,[5] who reported that the attitude toward the practice of oral hygiene among orthodontic patients was poor. The results of this study indicated a moderate level of periodontal health awareness. This emphasizes the need to improve oral health education among orthodontic patients. Orthodontists through their long-term treatment procedure have the opportunity and responsibility to educate their patients about periodontal health and to promote proper oral health behavior with emphasis on the prevention of periodontal disease. However, self-directed educational material such as a leaflet is an inexpensive and practical way of targeting large sections of the population to consider health change.


  Conclusion Top


Orthodontic patients showed moderate awareness of periodontal health. There is a need for improvement of teeth brushing and following oral hygiene measures during fixed orthodontic treatment and the importance of following oral health advice given by the dentist.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Thornberg MJ, Riolo CS, Bayirli B, Riolo ML, Van Tubergen EA, Kulbersh R. Periodontal pathogen levels in adolescents before, during, and after fixed orthodontic appliance therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009;135:95-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Krishnan V, Davidovitch A, Murphy N. Gingiva and orthodontic treatment. Semin Orthod 2007;13:257-71.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kadu A, Chopra SS, Gupta N, Jayan B, Kochar GD. Effect of the personality of the patient on pain perception and attitude towards orthodontic treatment. J Indian Orthod Soc 2015;49:89-95.  Back to cited text no. 3
  [Full text]  
4.
Elanchezhiyan S, Raja S. Awareness on gingival health among orthodontic correction seeking individuals. J Indian Acad Dent Spec Res 2010;1:19-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Baheti MJ, Toshniwal NG. Survey on oral hygiene protocols among orthodontic correction-seeking individuals. J Edu Ethics Dent 2015;5:8-13.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ay ZY, Sayin MO, Ozat Y, Goster T, Atilla AO, Bozkurt FY. Appropriate oral hygiene motivation method for patients with fixed appliances. Angle Orthod 2007;77:1085-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Arici S, Alkan A, Arici N. Comparison of different toothbrushing protocols in poor-toothbrushing orthodontic patients. Eur J Orthod 2007;29:488-92.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Matić S, Ivanović M, Nikolić P. Evaluation of a prevention programme efficiency for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Vojnosanit Pregl 2011;68:214-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Taani DQ. Periodontal awareness and knowledge, and pattern of dental attendance among adults in Jordan. Int Dent J 2002;52:94-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Silness J, Loe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condtion. Acta Odontol Scand 1964;22:121-35.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Loe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 1963;21:533-51.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ramfjord SP, Knowles JW, Nissle RR, Shick RA, Burgett FG. Longitudinal study of periodontal therapy. J Periodontol 1973;44:66-77.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Atassi F, Awartani F. Oral hygiene status among orthodontic patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2010;11:E025-32.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Azodo CC, Umoh AO. Periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2015;5:340-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
15.
Shrestha RM, Bhattarai P, Dhakal J, Sherstha S. Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients towards orthodontic treatment: A multi-centric study. Orthod J Nepal 2014;4:6-11.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed116    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded37    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal