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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 71-73

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of Aloe vera mouthwash on gingivitis


1 Department of Periodontology, AR Rass College of Dentistry, Qassim University, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Kothamangalam, India
3 Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Kothamangalam, India
4 Department of Periodontics, PMS College of Dental Science and Research, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
5 Department of Periodontology, Siddhpur Dental College and Hospital, Siddhpur, Gujarat, India
6 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission12-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance15-Oct-2019
Date of Web Publication19-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nubesh Khan
Department of Periodontology, AR Rass College of Dentistry, Qassim University, Al- Qassim.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/INJO.INJO_33_19

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  Abstract 

Introduction: The Aloe vera has pharmacological actions which include antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and immune- boosting properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate anti inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on gingivitis. Materials and methods: This study used 50 patients who came to a private clinic in Kerala, India, divided into 25 subjects in the test group and 25 subjects in the control group. Results: The difference is seen in the mean value of index in the subjects of scaling with the Aloe vera mouthwash of 0.97210.19543, higher than the mean on subjects without Aloe vera mouthwash of 0.76320.18754 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The use of Aloe vera mouthwash can decrease gingival inflammation, which can be seen from the gingival index score on all test subjects.

Keywords: Aloe vera, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, gingivitis


How to cite this article:
Khan N, Sukumaran B, John B, Sasikumari G, Thakkar RR, Sargaiyan V. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of Aloe vera mouthwash on gingivitis. Int J Oral Care Res 2019;7:71-3

How to cite this URL:
Khan N, Sukumaran B, John B, Sasikumari G, Thakkar RR, Sargaiyan V. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of Aloe vera mouthwash on gingivitis. Int J Oral Care Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 12];7:71-3. Available from: http://www.ijocr.org/text.asp?2019/7/3/71/271307




  Introduction Top


Aloe vera is a cactus-like plant, which is from Liliaceae family. The A. vera leaf has mucilaginous tissue in the center, which has been traditionally used for the treatment of sunburn, digestive tract disorders, wounds, and orally as a laxative.[1] It is also used as a traditional or folk remedy for a variety of conditions such as diabetes, asthma, epilepsy, and osteoarthritis. Many active ingredients of the A. vera inner gel have been identified.[2],[3] The gel consists of 1%–2% active compounds such as aloin, aloesin, aloe emodin, acemannan, aloeride, aloemannan, naftoquinones, methylchromones, saponin, flavonoids, sterols, vitamins and amino acids, and 98%–99% water. The A. vera gel has pharmacological actions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and immune-boosting properties.[4],[5],[6] The purpose of this study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory property of A. vera mouthwash on gingivitis.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study comprised 50 patients who visited a private clinic in Kerala, India, and they were divided into 25 subjects in the test group and 25 subjects in the control group. Inclusion criteria consisted of men and women who were 18–45 years of age, had never received periodontal treatment before, and with mild to moderate gingivitis (score of 0.1–2.0). The exclusion criteria included subjects with periodontitis, systemic disease, a fixed orthodontic appliance, those who were currently pregnant, and those who had used a mouthwash with natural ingredients at the time of the study. On day 0, the initial subject examination was carried out with the help of Loe–Silness gingival index. After the initial examination, scaling was carried out for both the groups, then 25 test subjects were given A. vera mouthwash along with the instructions for use during the next seven days, and 25 other subjects were not given anything. Both the groups of subjects were instructed to maintain good dental health by brushing their teeth with toothpaste twice a day (morning and night) for seven consecutive days, not using additional mouth cleansers such as toothpicks and dental floss, not fasting, and not cleansing tartar during research. On the seventh day, a final examination was performed by examining and recording the final gingival index. For the analysis of data, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (Windows, version 20.0) was used. Beginning with normality test using Shapiro–Wilk test and t test, paired samples t test and independent samples t test were used for data analysis. The statistical test performed had a significance level of 0.05 (P = 0.05) and confidence level of 95% (α = 0.05).


  Results Top


There was a decrease in the gingival index mean value from 3.2753 ± 0.11275 (before scaling without A. vera mouthwash) to 0.8538 ± 0.16547 (one week after scaling) (P < 0.05) [Table 1]. The gingival index mean value decreased from 3.6443 ± 0.10437 (before scaling with A. vera mouthwash) to 0.7675 ± 0.26548 (one week after scaling with A. vera mouthwash) (P < 0.05) [Table 2]. However, the difference observed in the mean value of index in the subjects of scaling with the A. vera mouthwash (0.9721 ± 0.19543) was higher than the mean value of index in the subjects of scaling without A. vera mouthwash (0.7632 ± 0.18754; P < 0.05) [Table 3].
Table 1: The influence of scaling without Aloe vera mouthwash on the gingival index

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Table 2: The influence of scaling with Aloe vera mouthwash on the gingival index

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Table 3: Difference between scaling group with and without Aloe vera mouthwash with observation of the gingival index

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  Discussion Top


A. vera has been reported to inhibit the growth of various microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Candida albicans, and Actinomyces viscosus. Due to its antibacterial properties, it leads to low plaque scores.[7] In a study, A. vera leaves proved to have antibacterial properties at the concentrations of 20%, 50%, and 100% against S. mutans. The antibacterial properties were higher at higher concentrations.[8] The research showed that A. vera mouthwash has similar effects on plaque and gingival inflammation when compared with chlorhexidine mouthwash. The low gingival index observed in study subjects could be explained by the fact that A. vera is a good antibacterial agent. Its antimicrobial properties against Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, and C. albicans were reported by Heggers et al.[9]A. vera was used by Noskov[10] to treat early stages of periodontitis in a study, which got good results. It reduces edema of the soft tissues and consequently reduces the bleeding of the gums. It shows strong antiseptic action in gingival pockets where normal cleaning is difficult.[11],[12] Our results are similar to the results of a study with respect to a significant difference between before and after scaling with a given mouthwash.[7] In this study, it was found that scaling with A. vera mouthwash is more effective in reducing gingival inflammation as compared to scaling treatment without A. vera mouthwash.


  Conclusion Top


The use of A. vera mouthwash can decrease gingival inflammation, which can be observed from the gingival index score of all test subjects. The decrease in gingival index in the test group using A. vera mouthwash was greater than that of the control group that was not using mouthwash.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Morton JF. Folk uses and commercial exploitation of aloe leaf pulp. Econ Bot 1961;15:311-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ahlawat KS, Khatkar BS. Processing, food applications and safety of Aloe vera products: A review. J Food Sci Technol 2011;48:525-33.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hamman JH. Composition and applications of Aloe vera leaf gel. Molecules 2008;13:1599-616.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Gupta VK, Malhotra S. Pharmacological attribute of Aloe vera: Revalidation through experimental and clinical studies. Ayu 2012;33:193-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.
Ghaderi R, Afshar M, Akhbarie H, Golalipour MJ. Comparison of the efficacy of honey and animal oil in accelerating healing of full thickness wound of mice skin. Int J Morphol 2010;28:193-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Reynolds T, Dweck AC. Aloe vera leaf gel: A review update. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;68:3-37.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Karim B, Bhaskar DJ, Agali C, Gupta D, Gupta RK, Jain A, et al. Effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on periodontal health: Triple blind randomized control trial. Oral Health Dent Manag 2014;13:14-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Boel T. Daya anti bakteri pada beberapa konsentrasi dan kadar hambat tumbuh minimal dari aloe vera. Dentika Dent J 2002;7:65.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Heggers JP, Pineless GR, Robson MC. Dermaide aloe/Aloe vera gel: Comparison of the antimicrobial effects. J Am Med Technol 1979;41:293-4.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Noskov AD. [The treatment of periodontosis by injections of aloe extract and their influence on the phosphorus-calcium metabolism]. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1966;45:13-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Oosterwaal PJ, Mikx FH, Van ‘t Hof MA, Renggli HH. Comparison of the antimicrobial effect of the application of chlorhexidine gel, amine fluoride gel and stannous fluoride gel in debrided periodontal pockets. J Clin Periodontol 1991;18:245-51.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Greenstein G, Polson A. The role of local drug delivery in the management of periodontal diseases: A comprehensive review. J Periodontol 1998;69:507-20.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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