• Users Online: 360
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Table of Contents
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 78-80

Assessment of orthodontic brackets for the shear bond strength bonded with and without primer: In vitro study

1 Department of Orthodontics, Al Badar Rural Dental College and Hospital, Kalaburagi, India
2 Consultant Orthodontist, Shifa Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Endodontics, Aditya Dental College, Beed, India
4 Consultant Orthodontist, Cherpulassery, Kerala, India
5 Department of Oral Medicine, AMEs Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication14-May-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ayub Khan
Department of Orthodontics, Al Badar Rural Dental College and Hospital, Kalaburagi 585102, Karnataka.
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/INJO.INJO_15_18

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: The elementary function of primer is to boost the efficiency of the final bond. Secondarily, they are also pronounced to protect the enamel from the consequent demineralization by the acid etching and to reduce marginal leakage. The use of primer adds a step in the bonding procedure, which necessitates increased chair time risk of moisture contamination and an increased procedural cost. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted premolars were procured and divided into two groups, that is, a conventional adhesive system with and without primer. Later, acrylic blocks were made and the teeth were bonded and then the shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine. Results: Group I (with primer) has the bond strength value of 10.22±2.4MPa and Group II (without primer) has the bond strength value of 9.11±1.596MPa. Conclusion: A conventional adhesive system with and without primer showed SBS in the range satisfactory for clinical usage.

Keywords: Shear bond strength, premolar samples, universal testing machine

How to cite this article:
Khan A, Mueez A, Reza M, Rasheed MA, Kattimani S. Assessment of orthodontic brackets for the shear bond strength bonded with and without primer: In vitro study. Int J Oral Care Res 2018;6:78-80

How to cite this URL:
Khan A, Mueez A, Reza M, Rasheed MA, Kattimani S. Assessment of orthodontic brackets for the shear bond strength bonded with and without primer: In vitro study. Int J Oral Care Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 19];6:78-80. Available from: http://www.ijocr.org/text.asp?2018/6/4/78/253706

  Introduction Top

Buonocore,[1] in 1955, introduced acid-etch technique, which heralded a new era in the field of dentistry, and has since initiated varied applications including bonding of orthodontic attachments.[2] Since then, various dental adhesives and methods of bonding orthodontic supplements have been reported to reinforce the bond strength of the orthodontic supplements by pretreatment of enamel surfaces.[3] The analyst has tested substitute enamel conditioners, such as maleic acid, nitric acid, and acidic primers, to determine if one can attain clinically useful bond strength while deteriorating the depth of enamel dissolution. But they observed significant degradation of bond strength. Previous generation bonding systems used conventional adhesives comprising three different agents, an enamel conditioner, a primer solution, and an adhesive resin during the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. Satisfactory bond strength is a factor that contributes to the clinical success of orthodontic treatment and measures the bond strengths of orthodontic adhesives.

  Materials and Methods Top

Eighty sound human premolar teeth indicated for extraction were collected [Figure 1]. After selection, the teeth were rinsed thoroughly with distilled water. Each tooth was embedded in self-curing acrylic resin. In one group, conventional adhesive system with primer was gently rubbed onto the buccal surface of teeth according to the manufacturer’s instructions. In another group, the same procedure was followed but without the use of a primer. Shear bond strength (SBS) testing was carried out for two groups with a universal testing machine [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Premolars samples

Click here to view
Figure 2: Universal testing machine

Click here to view

  Results Top

The mean SBS of group I (with primer) and group II (without primer) was found to be 10.22±2.4 and 9.11±1.596MPa, respectively. This difference was statistically insignificant (P ≥ 0.05) confirmed by Student’s t-test as shown in and [Graph 1].
Graph 1: Comparison of shear bond strength (SBS) in two groups with mean values

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

The direct bonding of orthodontic brackets has transformed and revised the clinical practice of orthodontic procedures. Henceforth, there is a necessity to further improvise the bonding procedure to conserve time and to minimize enamel loss without jeopardizing the ability to maintain clinically useful bond strength. However, a primary concern to the clinician is to get adequate bond strength during the orthodontic treatment and the retainment of a sound, unblemished enamel surface after the removal of brackets. The main choices rendered by this material are reduced working time. The choice of the conventional adhesive system as the control group in this study was based on the results of several reports[4] confirming its effectiveness in orthodontic bonding. Comparisons with other studies in which adhesive systems were used for orthodontic purposes can be made to some extent, although differences between the enamel surface preparation techniques and the testing methodologies used must be considered with caution.[5] The findings indicated that the use of orthodontic brackets without primer to bond to the enamel surface provided lower SBS values compared to brackets bonded with primer in our study, but were found to be near the clinically acceptable range recommended by Reynolds,[6] who suggested a range of 5–8MPa. A study was undertaken by O’Brien et al.[7] to appraise the ascendancy of unfilled “primer” resin on the SBS of the bracket/adhesive and the enamel/adhesive interfaces. Sarabjit Singh Nandhra et al.[8] evaluated the clinical effectiveness of brackets bonded with and without primer. The results were not coordinated with this study as it was carried out in the clinical setup when compared to our study, which was in vitro. Similarly, Farhan Bazargani et al.[9] showed the incidence of failure of brackets bonded with and without primer in a randomized controlled trial that showed correlation with our study.

  Conclusion Top

A conventional adhesive system with and without primer showed SBS in the range satisfactory for clinical usage.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Buonocore MG. A simple method of increasing the adhesion of acrylic filling materials to enamel surfaces. J Dent Res 1955;34:849-53.  Back to cited text no. 1
Newman GV, Snyder WH, Wilson CE Jr. Acrylic adhesives for bonding attachments to tooth surfaces. Angle Orthod 1968;38:12-18.  Back to cited text no. 2
Retief DH, Dreyer CJ, Gavron G. The direct bonding of orthodontic attachments to teeth by means of an epoxy resin adhesive. Am J Orthod 1970;58:21-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
Artun J, Zachrisson B. Improving the handling properties of a composite resin for direct bonding. Am J Orthod 1982;81:269-76.  Back to cited text no. 4
Rix D, Foley TF, Mamandras A. Comparison of bond strength of three adhesives: Composite resin, hybrid GIC, and glass-filled GIC. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001;119:36-42.  Back to cited text no. 5
Reynolds IR, Von Fraunhofer JA. Direct bonding of orthodontic attachments to teeth: The relation of adhesive bond strength to gauze mesh size. Br J Orthod 1976;3:91-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
O’Brien KD, Watts DC, Read MJF. Light cured direct bonding—is it necessary to use a primer? European Journal of Orthodontics 1991;13:22-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
Sarabjit Singh Nandhra, Simon J. Littlewood, Nadine Houghton, Friedy Luther, Jagadish Prabhu. Theresa Munyombwe and Simon R. Wood. Do we need primer for orthodontic bonding? A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Orthodontics, 2015; 147-55.  Back to cited text no. 8
Farhan Bazargani, Anders Magnuson, Hanna Löthgren, Agata Kowalczyk. Orthodontic bonding with and without primer: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Orthodontics 2015;1-5.  Back to cited text no. 9


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Graph 1]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
   Materials and Me...
   Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded54    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal